Distribution, écologie et évolution de l'hyperaccumulation des éléments en traces par Noccaea caerulescens

Abstract : Noccaea caerulescens (Brassicaceae) is the main hyperaccumulator of Cd, Ni and Zn, candidate for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The distribution of the species is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity of environmental factors, especially concerning the soil composition. In addition, significant variations in the hyperaccumulation ability between populations of the species have been observed. Therefore, from a broad sampling in France and its neighboring regions, the aim of this thesis was: i) a better understanding of the ecology of N. caerulescens including soil habitat components, iii) a comparison of the ability of populations to accumulate Cd, Ni and Zn and iii) the assessment of the genetic structure among populations. Our results show that N. caerulescens is widespread in the French mountains and not restricted to the metalliferous sites given the large number of non-metalliferous stations explored. In addition, the prospected stations are characterized by a wide range in the soil composition leading to propose a new classification of N. caerulescens stations. On the accumulation of trace elements in situ, we have shown that the bioavailability of trace elements was not the only factor explaining the observed concentrations in the plant. Moreover, hydroponic cultures highlighted a compromise between carbon allocation and accumulation of trace elements especially in serpentine populations. Finally, the analysis of the neutral genetic structure highlighted three geographic regions highly differentiated, but not consistent with the edaphic type
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Cédric Gonneau. Distribution, écologie et évolution de l'hyperaccumulation des éléments en traces par Noccaea caerulescens. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0037⟩. ⟨tel-01750690⟩

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