Pollution anthropique de cours d'eau : caractérisation spatio-temporelle et estimation des flux

Abstract : The Water Framework Directive demands a return to good condition for rivers in Europe. These rivers receive different types of pollution related to various economic activities of populations installed along their banks. We are often interested in an isolated manner to particular types of pollution: pollution due to agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and livestock waste in rural areas, pollution due to a specific industry (steel, paper mill, etc.), more or less well treated domestic pollution, etc. But in many cases, we are dealing with a mixture of pollutants. In the case of the Moselle, the pollution generated by human activities in the French part of the Moselle watershed impacts surface water quality downstream and therefore the Rhine. Our goal is to characterize the state of some tributaries of the Moselle (Madon, Meurthe, Vologne and Fensch) versus anthropogenic pressures and propose a strategy to calculate the flow of pollutants along these rivers. In this context, sampling campaigns with a dense spatial stations have been organized. In addition to the usual parameters characterizing water quality (conductivity, pH, dissolved organic carbon, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, etc.) a particular attention has been given to optical properties (UV-visible absorbance, synchronous fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter in order to understand its origin. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were studied by deconvolution or by principal components analysis. A method has been developed, based on the synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, to detect the presence of optical brighteners. Finally, a methodology has been developed in Madon watershed in order to calculate the mean daily pollution flux at each sampling station for each sampling period from geographic data
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Aziz Assaad. Pollution anthropique de cours d'eau : caractérisation spatio-temporelle et estimation des flux. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0054⟩. ⟨tel-01750762⟩

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