Modélisation et évaluation environnementale des filières de cogénération par combustion et gazéification du bois

Abstract : Biomass is one of the most promising renewable energy source in Europe. Its use as a substitute to fossil energy is expected to mitigate climate change. However, potential drawbacks are also feared with large scale development. In order to assess the environmental impacts of the biomass-to-energy chain, we firstly developed a model of the bioenergy system, from the forest to the energy production. We focused on two biomass power plants for combined heat and power (CHP) production: one is based on the conventional direct combustion process while the other is based on the more advanced gasification process. Gasification offers higher electrical efficiency, but its development is still facing technical difficulties. In case of the gasification process, we defined the best operating conditions regarding energetic and exergetic efficiencies, as well as the syngas quality requirements. Secondly, we calculated the carbon and mineral flows taken from the forest through energy wood harvesting, along with the forested area required to feed the CHP plant. The other resources and emissions related to the plant operation were also predicted. We observed that more extensive forestry practices led to an increase in the mineral exports. Finally, we evaluated the environmental performance of the two biomass CHP plants using life cycle assessment (LCA). Within French energy context, we found that both CHP technologies had very similar impacts with a slight advantage toward the combustion process. It appears of particular benefit to replace current fossil energy systems with biomass CHP plants to reduce climate change
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Jessica François. Modélisation et évaluation environnementale des filières de cogénération par combustion et gazéification du bois. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0071⟩. ⟨tel-01750794⟩

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