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Les incertitudes lors de l'évaluation de l'aléa de départ des éboulements rocheux

Abstract : The present dissertation proposes to study uncertainties in rockfall hazard assessment process, on the basis of the Baecher & Christian typology (2005), which identifies (1) decision uncertainties, (2) knowledge uncertainties, and (3) natural variability. Decision uncertainties are due to the subjectivity of experts’ assessment. An experiment has been realized in order to evaluate the influence of the expertise level, and the chosen method (qualitative or quantitative) on the rockfall hazard. The rockfall hazard levels obtained by the qualitative method are quite uniform while the quantitative method produces more disparate results. We have shown that, classically, the expertise level has no influence on the assessment if the method is precisely detailed. In the case of spectacular sites, experts do not overestimate the hazard. The natural variability is associated to the temporal variability of the rockfalls. We have studied the statistical correlation between meteorological and rockfall databases. We have developed a method that takes into account the probability of occurrence of the studied triggering factor (rainfalls and temperatures). This new approach is easy to use, and also helps to determine the conditional probability of rockfall according to a given meteorological factor. This approach will help to optimize risk management in studied areas based on their meteorological conditions. A work on these databases also has allowed the unpredictability of the rockfalls to be highlighted. Indeed, the delay between two rockfalls follows a Poisson distribution. Knowledge uncertainties may concern the preparatory factors. We have studied them with numerical models of a rock block sliding along a planar joint, depending on the proportion and position of rock bridges (distinct elements - UDEC). Two stages of the failure process have been highlighted; they have been controlled by the stress redistribution induced by the failure, and the propagation of the rock bridges. However, these two phases are not identified when studying block displacements. We also have shown the influence of the position of rock bridges on the propagation of failure. This research provides an operational tool, and guidelines on assessment process that may help engineers in charge of a rockfall risk analysis to justify and refine the obtained risk estimations
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Adeline Delonca. Les incertitudes lors de l'évaluation de l'aléa de départ des éboulements rocheux. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0184⟩. ⟨tel-01751109⟩

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