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Amélioration de l'imprégnabilité aux solutions aqueuses des duramens des résineux : le cas du Douglas (Pseudotsuga Menziesii Franco)

Abstract : In the ten next years, Douglas-fir will be the main softwood resource harvested in France. It its valorization by peeling comes up against two of its particularities that complicate boiling efficiency: (i) the heartwood has a MC near FSP (30 to 40%) i.e. there is near no free water into tracheid (ii) it is impossible to impregnate this heartwood at atmospheric pressure with water. As a result, wood material being a very efficient insulator material, boiling of Douglas-fir prior to peeling for veneer production will take a very long time, free water being the main medium allowing heat transfer into green wood. Wood is a good thermal insulator, free water is generally preferred in the heating operation steaming prior peeling. Heating time in the case of Douglas is doubled or tripled compared to others species. This results in wasted energy and increased immobilization stocks. In order to improve the kinetics of impregnability of Douglas heart wood, we tested a number of methods of impregnating at two different scales. At the bench scale, samples with 20 mm (R) x 20 mm (t) x 120 mm (L) taken from the heartwood, have suffered from various tests by varying the soaking water temperature, duration soaking, the type of cooling. Some terms were repeated by placing the bath in ultrasound (frequency 20 kHz, power 400 W) and others by adding a surfactant in water or to drying samples, (thermal, natural, vacuum) prior impregnation . After each test, the water uptake was quantified by double weighing. We showed a repeatable board effect across all categories but none of them allows a significant improvement in the water uptake heartwood except drying that profoundly improved the moisture content of samples. The transposition to the industrial scale processing on ridges (50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter) showed the effectiveness of prior drying on the ability of wood to be penetrated by the water, but insufficient to significantly improve the peeling conditions. X-ray scanner observations confirm the persistence of the heterogeneity of the moisture distribution across all categories of experiments. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that the drying process at 103 ° C, generated microcracks in the cell walls of the pits. The tests performed on the peeling logs from different modalities studied showed no difference in behavior both in terms of cutting forces and quality veneers obtained
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Mohamed Tahar Elaieb. Amélioration de l'imprégnabilité aux solutions aqueuses des duramens des résineux : le cas du Douglas (Pseudotsuga Menziesii Franco). Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0210⟩. ⟨tel-01751207⟩

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