Étude expérimentale et numérique du procédé de trempe par jet d’eau impactant

Abstract : Jet impingement quenching is one of the key steps among the heat treatments undergone by seamless steel tubes. By controlling the steel microstructural evolutions, the heat treatment leads to specific mechanical properties which are required by the use of the tubes in extreme environment (new generation of power plants, deep drilling,…) During the quenching, complex phenomena occur both at the pipe surface and within the material. The latter (thermal diffusion – phase transformations – stress – strain) are indeed closely related to the hydraulic and thermal mechanisms occuring on the surface. All these phenomena and their interconnection must be perfectly understood and controlled to prevent the appearance of quenching defects such as tube bending and quench cracks and to get the desired metallurgical phases. To achieve this goal we have adopted a two-stage approach. Firstly, using two innovative cooling experimental devices, including a rotating Ni201 cylinder preheated up to 600°C, we have studied the effect of several operating parameters on thermal transfer: subcooling, jet velocity, velocity of the displacement of the cooled surface, direction and impact angle of the jet. Following these sets of experiments, new correlations predicting the maximum of wall heat flux density have been proposed. These correlations take into account the wall motion. Besides this experimental work, we have undertaken numerical simulations of the experimental configuration using the CFD software Fluent. However, simulating all the thermal transfer regimes, particularly the boiling regime and their transitions is still challenging when using the default encoded boiling models; we were unable to successfully complete this work. In a second step, we have built an experimental device allowing heterogeneous quenching of a 42CrMo4 steel tube by an impinging water jet. During the quenching, the tube temperature at different locations and vertical displacement evolutions were recorded. In addition, data obtained from high-speed camera recordings allowed us to monitor the evolution of the rewetting front at the onset of cooling. Numerical simulations of these experiments were conducted in order to compute the time evolutions of temperature, phase transformations, stress and strain throughout the steel tube. To this end we used the finite element calculation software Sysweld, which includes a predictive model for the kinetics of phase transformations called PhaseRC. Using bibliographic data and some laboratory experimental characterizations, we were able to build a set of thermo-physical, metallurgical and thermo-mechanical data needful for these calculations. The simulation results have allowed to understand well the bending evolution of the tube during cooling, considering the thermal gradients and the progress of the phase transformation. Comparison of the simulation results with those obtained from measurements has shown discrepancies that we have tried to explain. Some suggestions have been given for the progress of the work accomplished during this thesis
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Sylvain Devynck. Étude expérimentale et numérique du procédé de trempe par jet d’eau impactant. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0277⟩. ⟨tel-01751323⟩

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