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Mobilité des métaux dans les systèmes sol-plante-biochar

Abstract : Biochars play a central part in the mitigation of global changes. They also represent a challenge for the sustainable management of contaminated soils. This work was conducted in order to better understand the effects of biochar on the mobility of metals in soils and their uptake by plants. A range of experiments was set up following a gradual increase of complexity, with a wood-derived biochar obtained by pyrolysis at 450 °C and two soils, acidic or alkaline, contaminated by Cd, Pb and Zn from smelter activity. Various plant species with contrasting response to metals were tested. Batch sorption and column leaching experiments coupled to microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of biochars were conducted, together with plant growth experiment in pots, rhizoboxes and lysimeters. Results demonstrate that biochar's carbonated mineral phases play a dominant role in the immobilization of metals. They lead to metals direct sorption on the surface of biochar by co-precipitation. Their dissolution also contributes to the increase of soil pH, leading to an increased retention of metals on soil particles. Biochar alters the transfer of metals to the plants by decreasing the availability of metals, but also by decreasing the mobility of major cations and by modifying root surface. A decrease of metal transfer to the shoots was generally observed with Lolium perenne or Zea mays, while an increase of the uptake of Cd and Zn by the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens was evidenced. In conclusion, biochar controls the mobility of metals in soil-plant systems through a range of different mechanisms. From a practical point of view, biochar promotes both strategies of phytostabilization and phytoextraction of metals in contaminated soils
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  • HAL Id : tel-01751380, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 345594

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Frédéric Rees. Mobilité des métaux dans les systèmes sol-plante-biochar. Agronomie. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0293⟩. ⟨tel-01751380⟩

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