La consolidation en microfinance : le cas africain

Abstract : Starting from the observation that despite the important development of the microfinance sector over the past two decades, its performance with the poor remains low. In spite of its growth, there is a very large number of small actors, with portfolios of financial products slightly diversified and adapted to the financing income-generating activities of the populations, widely posited under the poverty line. In addition, the profits remain weak, limited and the capacity of self-financing remains precarious. We try to show that these limits can be reversed in the context of financial consolidation. Our main interest relies on the consolidation of the industry of microfinance, with the main goal of improving financial inclusion for the poors. We admit that the financial consolidation can improve the performance of microfinance institutions, and contribute effectively to reduce the poverty rate. Our work fits in the heart of the debate between the "welfarist" approach and the "institutionalist" approach of microfinance, and demonstrates that not only achieving the double objective namely, obtaining financial sustainability and the improvement of the living conditions of the poors, is possible, but also that its impact is ultimately not an illusion. Hence we first examine the microfinance sector by identifying the various motives of financial consolidation. Then we develop and evaluate patterns of consolidation in microfinance. This study is primarily inspired by the literature on the banking consolidation in United Stated, Europe, and Africa. The exam of the financial consolidation motives evidences the large on the segmentation of supply, the formation of market microstructures, and the bounded performance. The development of consolidation models aims to benchmark the MFI’S efficiency, by presenting the “Federal cooperative unions” approach, "downscaling" and "upscaling" approaches of microfinance banks. These models of MFI’S development ensure the establishment and the development of large institutions, which will certainly in the future reduce the rate of financial exclusion and produce positive effects on economic growth, and on the quality of life of private agents.
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Corine Sandra Kendo Tchakounte. La consolidation en microfinance : le cas africain. Economies et finances. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0311⟩. ⟨tel-01751608⟩

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