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Efficacité de zones tampons humides à réduire les teneurs en pesticides des eaux de drainage

Abstract : In Lorraine, the drainage of clay soils contributes to transfer of agricultural inputs (pesticides and fertilizers) towards surface waters. In this case, the regulatory grass strips (CAP regulation) installed along rivers are bypassed and no longer effective in purifying surface water. Thus, constructed wetlands (CWs) are recommended to take over grass cover bands. Generally, these CWs are installed at watershed scale or at that of several plots and they are therefore quite huge, making them competitive in the cultivated land. The objective of this project is to assess the effectiveness of two small CW, installed in the grass cover band between the drained plot and the river. For this, a multi-scale approach was set up integrating laboratory experiments in batch, pilot study taking into account the water dynamics and monitoring at field scale. The effectiveness of CW was assessed during the 2012/13 and 2013/14 drainage seasons. The nitrate and 79 pesticides concentrations were monitored at inlet and outlet of CWs and in various substrates (soils, sediment, straw and plants). For both devices, the removal efficiencies measured for nitrate were stable and ranged from 5.4 to 10.9 % of inlet amounts while the reduction of pesticide flows was very variable, ranging from -618.5 to 100 %. This variability was explained by four distinct behaviors. The high negative efficiency values were attributed to neighboured runoff events after heavy rains, for soluble molecules such as 2,4-MCPA or isoproturon. For both molecules, the sorption study showed low affinity for environmental substrates, facilitating their transport by runoff and drainage water. Other molecules such as boscalid or OH-atrazine showed effectiveness close to 0 %. For boscalid, this behavior has been observed in laboratory sorption and pilots studies, in agreement with its strong adsorption and desorption capacities. Finally, some molecules have shown reductions ranging from 9.9 to 100 %, in agreement with their low persistence (2,4-MCPA, clopyralid, mesosulfuron-methyl, ...) or their high affinity for environmental substrates (diflufenican, propiconazole or propyzamide). These small CWs, located in the grass cover bands, are effective in minimizing the contamination of surface waters by agricultural drainage water. Thus, multiplying the number of these devices at the plot scale in the agricultural landscape would reduce the contamination of surface waters by pesticides and nitrates while preserving the cultivated land. However, the effectiveness of these CWs are limited for pesticides with a low Koc and a long DT50; thus their installation in plot must not call into question the reduction in the use of pesticides
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Romain Vallée. Efficacité de zones tampons humides à réduire les teneurs en pesticides des eaux de drainage. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0069⟩. ⟨tel-01751701⟩



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