Le vieillissement membranaire cérébral : conséquences fonctionnelles et protection par les acides gras polyinsaturés oméga-3 alimentaires

Abstract : One of the marked societal phenomena in recent decades is the aging of populations due to continually increasing lifespans and as a result, a considerable surge in the number and proportion of elderly, particularly in Western countries. In this demographic context, the rise of chronic diseases related to aging, including Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia, has become a major public health issue. The impact of modifiable environmental factors, evolution of the pathogenic mechanisms involved, and the lack of curative treatments illustrates the need for the development of interventions to prevent or delay the onset of these aging-related diseases. The present work demonstrates the importance of using age-adapted study models and experimental methods with the goal towards slowing or delaying age-related deleterious processes. Secondly, our results have identified membranes as an essential part for normal brain function. The composition and architectural changes in the neuronal membranes of elderly mice disrupt their functionality and reduce neuroprotective responsiveness such as those sought by anti-Alzheimer’s therapies. We also observed similar pro-aging-type changes in brain membranes of dyslipidemic mice fed a high-fat diet. Thus, disturbances of lipid homeostasis are correlated with an increased risk of developing aging-related cardiovascular and metabolic as well as neurodegenerative diseases. We finally demonstrated the preventive potential of dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid, the most abundant long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain, and observed its ability to restore a neuroprotective response that was impaired in older mice
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Julie Colin. Le vieillissement membranaire cérébral : conséquences fonctionnelles et protection par les acides gras polyinsaturés oméga-3 alimentaires. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0078⟩. ⟨tel-01751720⟩

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