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Caractérisation et valorisation des substances extractibles de cinq essences camerounaises majeures de l'industrie du bois : Ayous, Moabi, Movingui, Padouk et Tali

Abstract : In this work, the accelerated technical ASE 200 and Soxhelet was used to evaluate the amount of extractives contained in five Cameroonian wood species. The amount of extractives ranged from 4.4 to 17.7% with respect to oven-dry matter. Phytochemical screening of the extractives revealed the presence of polyphenols, saponins, flavonoïds, sterols and terpenes. The total phenolic content of the extracts was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as standard. The phenolic content ranged from 16.5 to 165.83 mg eq gallic acid/g of extract. The condensed tannins, evaluated by colorimetric method, ranged from 0.15 to 23.61 g cyanidin equivalents/100 g of dry matter. GC-MS identified the homopterocarpine and pterocarpin as major compound in extracts of padouk. Catechin, gallic acid and pyrogallole were the major compounds found in the extracts of tali. Extracts of movingui consisted mainly of diterpenes and several compounds not readily identifiable. Gallic acid, squalene and triterpenes were the predominant compounds identified in the extracts of movingui. The natural durability of wood was evaluated using the European Standard EN 350-1. Mass losses increased when the wood samples were extracted. Mass losses of non-extracted samples ranged from 0.1 to 59% (with beech taken as a reference). The effect of extractives on fungal growth showed that at 250 ppm concentrations, the extracts were fungistatic and that at 500 ppm concentrations, the extracts of tali were fungicidal. Valorization of the extractives in the food and the textile industries was attempted. In food, the antioxidant activity of the extracts by inhibition of methyl linoleate induced by AIBN was evaluated. The results obtained were satisfactory because all the extracts showed antioxidant activity which varied from 10 to 86%. Then the anti-radical capacity of our extracts was assessed by the DPPH method. The concentration necessary to consume 50% of DPPH varied from 2.7 to 60.5 mg/L. Aqueous and alkaline extracts were used to dye natural and artificial fibers. The coloration taken by the fibers was measured using a Datacolor D65°10 apparatus. These extracts gave a yellow color with extracts of movingui and a red color with extracts of padouk. The effect of extractives on bacteria growth showed that the extracts were bacteriostatic at the tests concentrations
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Jean-Bosco Saha Tchinda. Caractérisation et valorisation des substances extractibles de cinq essences camerounaises majeures de l'industrie du bois : Ayous, Moabi, Movingui, Padouk et Tali. Matériaux. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0113⟩. ⟨tel-01751831⟩

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