Effets de l’introduction du pois dans une succession de cultures sur certaines communautés végétales et bactériennes et leurs fonctions écosystémiques associées

Abstract : Crops species modify resources availability and perturbation regimes perceived by the communities of organisms residing in the agroecosystems and, as a consequence, can lead to alteration of ecosystem functions useful to crop production, such as nitrogen and sulfur mineralization or crop-weeds competition, realized by weeds or microorganisms. Our objective was to study the effect of a legume, pea, when introduced in a crop succession, on weed communities and microbial communities involved in protein decomposition and sulfate ester mineralization, which are the main forms of N and S, respectively, in agricultural soils. To do so, we performed experiments in controlled conditions used data from a 5-years field experiment. In controlled conditions, we showed that pea during its development modify through its root functional traits several enzymatic activities involved in N decomposition/mineralization. However, in the field experiment, climatic factors were the main drivers of the microbial communities involved in N and S decomposition/mineralization. Moreover, pea selected weed communities that were functionally different from weed communities growing in other crops such as oilseed rape. However, this effect did not persist under the following crop. As a conclusion, our results suggest that pea modifications of microbial communities are weak compared to other factors such as climatic factors. However, pea effects on weed communities are strong but short lived. Those results highlight the complementarity of microcosm and field experiments, and the necessity of long term field experiments to take into account climate variability.
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Nicolas Romillac. Effets de l’introduction du pois dans une succession de cultures sur certaines communautés végétales et bactériennes et leurs fonctions écosystémiques associées. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0266⟩. ⟨tel-01752202⟩

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