Contribution à l'étude du comportement biomécanique de l'environnement d'un implant dentaire

Abstract : The influence of immediate loading of a dental implant supporting an overdenture or a fixed prosthesis and the evolution of bone-implant interface still raise many scientific questions. The aim of the present work was to study the possibility of this immediate loading, to analyse bone remodelling inside the bone surrounding implant area and to characterise the influence of the prosthetic parameters of a mandibular implant-retained overdenture on the implant and its environment. Two numerical models have been carried out. The first one concerned the use of an angled abutment for the restoration of an upper lateral incisor. It allowed us to study bone remodelling around implant over a given osseointegration period of 26 months. A bone safe load notion , corresponding to the preservation of bone integrity was introduced to quantify the maximal force that could be applied to the implant between its first loading and its osseointegrated state. A second model representing a mandibular implant-retained overdenture on two implants fixed with ball attachments showed that the major part of the mastication force transited through mucosa. The calculations also revealed that an implant positioning in the canine area drove to a better load distribution between the dental implants and the denture bearing surface and to lower stresses transmitted to the bone surrounding-implant.
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Marwan Daas. Contribution à l'étude du comportement biomécanique de l'environnement d'un implant dentaire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008METZ005S⟩. ⟨tel-01752567⟩

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