Étude du comportement mécanique des colonnes ballastées chargées par des semelles rigides

Abstract : Flexible inclusions, such as stone columns, are made up of purely frictional granular material and are constructed using a variety of methods, in order to improve the soil (settlement reduction, increase in bearing capacity). At their beginning, end of the 1950's, stone columns were placed in a regular mesh under great structures (embankments, tanks, slabs) bringing uniformly distributed loads. Since several years, these columns are often constructed as isolated elements or in groups of a certain number (generally 2 to 6) on top of which is placed a rigid footing. It is thus important to predict the stone column's mechanical behavior under rigid footings knowing that they can be used under a broad variety of structures (accomodation, industrial buildings). The main purpose of the work presented in this thesis is to: (1) analyse and quantify the soil's improvement thanks to the construction of stone columns, in a clayey soil, under rigid footings and (2) to develop a numerical methodology allowing us to validate full scale experimental results. In order to achieve this, an important full scale load test campaign was first conceived and then set up. Cone penetration tests were carried out before and after stone column construction (in isolated elements or in groups of three columns located at the corners of a 1,8 m faced triangle). Another part of this campaign deals with comparative full scale load tests carried out during 77 days: two rigid footings of 1.2 x 1.2 x 0.5 m, one on the natural soil and one placed on top of a stone column, and two rigid footings of 2.3 x 2.5 x 0.5 m, one on the natural soil and the other one placed on three stone columns. An important soil and column monitoring (inclinometers, pore pressure cells, total vertical load pressure cells) was set up before column construction in order to measure the soil's improvement and the column's failure behavior. The experimental results (lateral and vertical displacements, and total vertical pressures) were compared to numerical ones in 2 (PLAXIS 2D V8) and 3D (FLAC 3D). In 2D, part of the work was focused on simulating the installation process of a stone column by lateral displacement of the soil
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Sébastien Corneille. Étude du comportement mécanique des colonnes ballastées chargées par des semelles rigides. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007INPL036N⟩. ⟨tel-01752818⟩

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