Conservation des fruits du karité (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) et de l'aiélé (Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.) : isothermes de sorption d'eau et extraction des matières grasses des fruits stockés

Abstract : The static microgravimetric method permitted to observe that the Canarium pulp was more hygroscopic at 25°C than the sheanut kernels. On the other hand, sheanut kernel was more hygrocopic in the temperature range 35°C-55°C. The Oswin model best described the sorption data of the two products in the whole water activity range. Hysteresis was observed in the entire temperature range 25-55°C for sheanut kernel and Canarium pulp. It is suggested that these products should be stored in an environment with a relative humidity of 40-60%, in order to attain the recommended moisture content for storage. A model was adapted to predict the sorption isotherms of shea and Canarium below 25°C and above 55°C. The oil yields obtained with supercritical CO2 were lower than those obtained with hexane. The acid values of butter and oil extracted with carbon dioxide were greater than those of lipids extracted using hexane. The acid values of samples stored at 18°C were the largest. The iodine value of the oils decreased with an increase of the storage period, irrespective of the storage temperature and the solvent used for extraction. The extraction with CO2 did not extract linolenic acid. The proportion of free fatty acids increased when carbon dioxide was used for extraction. From the foregoing, it is suggested that storage at -33°C for up to 5 months presents the best means of preserving these products. Only fresh or fruits stored at -33°C should be used for the extraction of lipids using carbon dioxide. The products stored at 18°C were the most hard and the hardness was correlated negatively to the water content, but positively to the acid value of fatty material extracted
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Gilles Bernard Nkouam. Conservation des fruits du karité (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) et de l'aiélé (Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.) : isothermes de sorption d'eau et extraction des matières grasses des fruits stockés. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007INPL058N⟩. ⟨tel-01752824⟩

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