Élaboration et caractérisation de structures tridimensionnelles pour l'ingénierie tissulaire

Abstract : Tissue engineering is a pluridisciplinary domain aiming at elaborating biological autologous prosthesis. In this strategy, the fabrication of structures, called scaffolds, used for cell culture is necessary. We developed several fabrication techniques of these three-dimensional structures. The first technique (solvent casting/particulate leaching out), involving a polymer solution and spherolized glucose particles, allows the elaboration of scaffolds, owing spherical and well interconnected pores. We showed that the scaffolds are biocompatible and that their mechanical properties in compression can be adjusted. The second technique, electrospinning, leads to the elaboration of biocompatible fibrous membranes whose fiber diameter can be controlled from 800 nm to several micrometers. The third technique of scaffold fabrication proceeds by the elaboration of knitted scaffolds from suture threads. The knitted scaffolds are highly porous and their tensile behavior is similar, in its shape, to the ligaments and tendons stress-strain curves. Using knitting and electrospinning, it has been possible to fabricate knitted scaffolds where aligned microfibers are deposited on their surface. This innovative process allows an easy and efficient cell seeding and we showed that cells are orientated along the fibers, mimicking thus tendons and ligaments morphology. In the future, theses scaffolds will be used in a bioreactor where cyclic traction and torsion will be applied. The aligned microfibers will be able to fully transmit the deformation to the cells, stimulating by this mean the extracellular matrix synthesis
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Cédryck Vaquette. Élaboration et caractérisation de structures tridimensionnelles pour l'ingénierie tissulaire. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008INPL002N⟩. ⟨tel-01753038⟩

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