Contribution à l’étude phytochimique et moléculaire de la synthèse des coumarines et furocoumarines chez diverses variétés d’agrumes du genre Citrus

Abstract : Coumarins and furanocoumarins are phytoalexines synthesized by some plant families (e.g. Rutaceæ that include citrus), to defend themselves against bioaggressors. Furanocoumarins can be toxic for humans, when combined with some drugs: this is the grapefruit juice effect. Nowadays, most of the cytochrome P450s involved in the furanocoumarin synthesis in Apiaceæ, have already been characterized. However, despite the economical importance of citrus, a little is known about the coumarins and furanocoumarins pathway in these plants. In this work, we created, optimized and validated an analytical method by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), to identify and quantitate 28 coumarins and furanocoumarins in citrus peel and pulp. This method allowed us to chemotype 62 citrus varieties, distinguished by their low or high capacity to produce these compounds. In parallel, a bioinformatic work on public banks of genomic DNA from citrus, allowed to identify seven genes with high sequence homologies with those involved in the synthesis of furanocoumarins in Pastinaca sativa (CYP71) and in Arabidopsis thaliana (CYP82). A quantitative analysis of their expression level in citrus showed that four of them were more expressed in high coumarins and furanocoumarins producing fruits. The cloning of these genes and their heterologous expression in yeast, revealed the function of grapefruit and Combava CYP82D64, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of xanthotoxin in 5-hydroxy-xanthotoxin. The synthesis of coumarins and furanocoumarins in citrus, then better apprehended, allowed us to propose a breeding scheme aiming at decreasing the levels of these compounds in Citrus. We also showed the convergent evolution of CYP71 and CYP82 in their synthesis in Apiaceæ and in Rutaceæ respectively. The discovery of the first cytochrome P450 from Citrus involved in the production of these compounds, opens up new prospects for the elucidation of their biosynthetic pathway in citrus
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Audray Dugrand-Judek. Contribution à l’étude phytochimique et moléculaire de la synthèse des coumarines et furocoumarines chez diverses variétés d’agrumes du genre Citrus. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0238⟩. ⟨tel-01754500⟩

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