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Biomarqueurs prédictifs de la réponse aux traitements par thérapies ciblées dans le cancer du sein

Abstract : Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women and is a real public health problem. Advances in molecular biology have allowed the characterization of the major signaling pathways and revealed their major implication in carcinogenesis processes. Molecular targets have been identified and have enabled the development of targeted therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies, or kinase inhibitors. Despite these considerable advances that have improved the care of patients, emerging of resistance to treatments has been observed. The aim of this work was to identify new tumor biomarkers and determine their clinical significance, their theranostic interest and their impact on the response to targeted therapies. Initially, we studied the activating mutations of the PIK3CA gene. These mutations are found in 25% of breast cancers and are involved in resistance to trastuzumab, antiestrogens and mTOR inhibitors. We analyzed 149 invasive breast tumor samples for PIK3CA gene mutations by PCR-HRM (High Resolution Melting) and 118 by PCR-ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutation System). The results achieved with the 2 techniques were consistent (k = 0.845; p <0.001) and a relationship between PIK3CA mutations and grade SBR was highlighted with a lower occurrence of mutations in SBR grade III tumors (p=0.025 in HRM and p=0.009 in ARMS). Secondly, we investigated the functional alteration of PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS/RAF/MAPKinases and P38MAPKinase signaling pathways. We have analyzed the expression level of phosphoproteins p-AKT, p-GSK3ß, p-S6 kinase, p-MEK1, p-ERK1 / 2, p-P90RSK, p-IGF1R and p-p38MAPK by multiplex immunoanalysis. This part includes 3 studies. The first study was a retrospective study of 45 frozen samples of invasive breast tumors in which we observed that the level of expression of P38 and p-P38 was higher in the ER + tumors. The second study was a prospective study to identify biomarkers of response to trastuzumab-everolimus association in patients with early breast cancer treated preoperatively. This study showed a statistically significant increase of the expression level of p-MEK1 (p = 0.012), p-ERK1/2 (p = 0.003) and p-p38MAPK (p<0.001) in arm treated by trastuzumab associated with everolimus. It could be explained by the repression of a negative feedback loop involving S6K, PI3K and RAS by everolimus, leading to the activation of RAS/RAF/MAPKinases signaling pathway. In the control arm investigating trastuzumab alone, no significant variations of the level of expression of phosphoproteins was demonstrated, raising the hypothesis of the implementation of a predominant immunological mechanism of action for Trastuzumab. The third study that compared effect of trastuzumab in vitro and in clinical setting confirms that trastuzumab has different modes of action when evaluated in cells and in clinical conditions. As a whole, this work showed that determining the mutation status of PIK3CA and the expression level of phosphoproteins could be useful to refine the molecular characterization of breast cancers and optimize the criteria used to personalize the prescription of targeted therapies
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Maëva Lion. Biomarqueurs prédictifs de la réponse aux traitements par thérapies ciblées dans le cancer du sein. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0287⟩. ⟨tel-01754581⟩



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