Les endophytes bruns septés dans les sols pollués aux éléments traces métalliques (ETM) : caractérisation, effet sur les plantes et mécanismes de tolérance aux ETM

Abstract : Phytomanagement is a handling method of contaminated sites based on the ability of plants to sequester pollutants. Fungi could favor plant growth in contaminated sites but were far less studied in the context of phytomanagement. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) were reported to improve plant tolerance against metallic trace elements (TE). The present work is part of the LORVER project and aims to understand the “plant-DSE-TE”. DSE were isolated from poplar roots growing on TE-contaminated soils and characterized. They belong to Leptodontidium, Phialophora, Cadophora and Phialocephala genera. Three strains were inoculated to birch and poplar in TE-contaminated soils. Leptodontidium sp. improved plant growth with an increase in chlorophyll, P and K concentrations, whereas Cadophora sp. decreased Cd concentration in shoots of birch. Then, Cadophora sp. Fe06, was used with an endomycorrhizal fungus, to co-inoculate ryegrass in a TE-polluted soil. The co-inoculation leads to the decrease of Cd concentration in shoots. Finally, the mechanisms involved in TE-tolerance by DSE were studied through the screening of a library of Leptondontidium sp. insertional random-mutants and an evaluation of the role of melanin against TE stress. The present work highlights the complexity of the interactions between DSE and plants under TE stress. These interactions were influenced by different parameters including plant species, DSE strains, and soil properties. Nevertheless, the ability of DSE to colonize a broad spectrum of plants in different soils and to promote plant growth, suggest that DSE could represent a substantial benefit for the fungus-assisted phytomanagement of polluted soils
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Charlotte Berthelot. Les endophytes bruns septés dans les sols pollués aux éléments traces métalliques (ETM) : caractérisation, effet sur les plantes et mécanismes de tolérance aux ETM. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0024⟩. ⟨tel-01757107⟩

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