Caractérisation de mollusques gastéropodes terrestres en tant que bioindicateurs de la contamination polymétallique (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd et Pb)

Abstract : The evaluation of the level of the polymetallic contamination in ground ecosystem requires the choice of relevant bioindicator organisms. This study confirms the bioindicative capacity of ground gastropods. Helix aspersa aspersa and Cepaea nemoralis present capacities of equivalent level. A grid of evaluation of the polymetallic contamination with 4 or 5 classes for 8 metals was proposed. The use of Helix pomatia wil require later researches with establishment of a specific grid. Helix aspersa aspersa choice in active biosurvey is justified by the possibility of obtaining a controlled farming by the individuals exempt from metal contamination after improvement of the food. The study of the levels of bioaccumulation reached for 8 metals, in varied conditions (farming animals, autochtonous or transfered animals), on not contamined or contamined sites (motorway, urban traffic, old coppermine, THC, electric steelworks), allowed to validate the grid of evaluation of the level of contamination by keeping 4 classes for Cu, Mn, Cd, Ni and 5 classes for Fe, Zn, Cr et Pb. For the lead, the distinction between the lead of pedogeological origin and the lead resulting from anthropogenic activities cand be realized by the study of the pole "petrol-trafic", the pole "industry" and the "wild" pole. An ultrastructural and microanalytical study of the nephrocyte put in evidence the existence of an original wavy ergastoplasm and that of a production of concretions mainly constituted by amorphous silica. The biomineralization on base of calcium (pyrophosphates) was verified as well as its role of trap. This biomineralization represents an important way of decontamination of the organism, but also likely for the ecosystem
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François Pihan. Caractérisation de mollusques gastéropodes terrestres en tant que bioindicateurs de la contamination polymétallique (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd et Pb). Ecotoxicologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2001. Français. ⟨NNT : 2001METZ039S⟩. ⟨tel-01775485⟩

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