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Etude de la génotoxicité de matrices complexes à l'aide de plantes supérieures

Abstract : Complex matrices were investigated for genotoxicity in a series of experiments with higher plants : 2 spiked soils, one with metals (SI) and the other one with organics (SII), 2 contaminated soils and 2 activated sludges. Three different plant species were chosen : an herbaceous plant (Tradescantia, commonly named spiderwort), the broad bean (Vicia faba) and the small and white onion (Allium cepa). DNA strand breakages (detected with the micronucleus assay and with the comet assay) and somatic mutations were mainly studied. The genotoxicity tests with plants were carried out immersing the roots in the aqueous extract of each complex matrix (indirect procedure). Moreover, the results obtained with the Vicial/Allium assays were compared with those obtained with a direct procedure (in that case onion bulbs and broad bean seeds were directly put to germinate in each of the four soils) and an intermediate procedure (with root immersion in a mixture of soil and nutrient solution). Results showed the feasibility and the rapidity of the comet assay, the higher sensitivity of Vicia when compared to other species. A good correlation was found between the intermediate and the direct procedures, but the indirect procedure (with aqueous extract of soil) remained the most efficient way of exposure to detect the genotoxic potential of contaminated soils. Finally, the SI and SIII contaminated soils were shown to be highly genotoxic, while the SII and SIV soils appeared to be weakly genotoxic. The activated sludges were found to be very weakly genotoxic, specially when they are composted
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Sylvie Cotelle. Etude de la génotoxicité de matrices complexes à l'aide de plantes supérieures. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1999. Français. ⟨NNT : 1999METZ062S⟩. ⟨tel-01775709⟩



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