Comparaison de trois tests de toxicité sur bactéries (bioluminescence, respiration, minéralisation du glucose)

Abstract : Bacterial tests are not extensively used in toxicity assessment though prokaryotes play a prominent part, in ecosystems ; in fact, the performances of bacterial toxicity tests are badly known. Therefore three bacterial toxicity assays differing in their methodology were studied : "Microtox" test, measuring the inhibition of the bacterical luminescence of Photobacterium phosphoreum, "oxygen consumption of activated sludge" assay (ISO 8192), "glucose mineralization by Escherichia Coli assay, measuring the rate of released CO2. In a first time the best conditions to improve the methodologies of every assay were inquired. Next the performances of the three bacterial tests were compared and a toxicity screening of eleven substances was carried out. Results show that the repeatability of the three bacterial tests is satisfying, as variation coefficients are included between 5 and 33%. "Microtox" assay is the most sensitive. The lower sensitivity of "Oxygen consumption of activated sludge" assay could be due to a high ratio biomass/toxic substances and to high concentrations of substrates which modify the bioavailibility of toxicants. As for the "glucose mineralization" assay, its sensitivity is low and selective ; the species - Escherichia coli-could be responsible for this selectivity. "Microtox" test, which is sensitive and rapid, appears well adapted to the detection of pollution in aquatic environment and to the toxicity screening of complex effluents and leachates. "Oxygen consumption" assay can be advantageously used to measure the impact of sewage on activated sludge in biological treatment plants. Although the performances of "glucose mineralization" assay are moderate, the methodology of this bioassay could be interesting for toxicity evaluation in biodegradability tests or for studies in situ using field microorganisms
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Christine Reteuna. Comparaison de trois tests de toxicité sur bactéries (bioluminescence, respiration, minéralisation du glucose). Bactériologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1988. Français. ⟨NNT : 1988METZ010S⟩. ⟨tel-01775753⟩

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