Les écosystèmes prairiaux de la plaine alluviale de la Meuse Lorraine : phytosociologie, dynamique et fonctionnement, en relation avec les gradients hydriques et les modifications des pratiques agricoles

Abstract : The alluvial meadows constitutes original ecosystems host to numerous, rare, or slowly decreasing, animal and vegetal species. The vegetal communities are structured along the topographical gradient. In the alluvial flood plain of the Meuse, the phytosological study permitted to distinguish three meadow associations, the Colchico-festucetum pratensis, the Senecioni-oenanthetum mediae and the Gratiolo-oenanthetum fistulosae, two pastured communities the Hordeo-lolietum perennis and the Rumici-alopecuretum geniculati and different semi-aquatic associated groups. The flood-plain vegetation is in balance with the hydrous (water-table and flood levels) and the agronomic factors. The modification of one of these parameters leads to the modification of the floristic composition. The, (1) synchronic study of patches situated on the same topographic level and under different agricultural managements, (2) diachronic historic (thanks to the work of Duvigneaud in 1958) and (3) diachronic experimental studies permit to show the dynamic of the vegetation after the variation of agricultural practices. The evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative productivity of the alluvial meadows shows, even if there are no fertiliser applications, a quite good herbaceous production. The use of fertilisers increases the productivity and the total and digestible protein contents in the fodder. The fertilisation conducts to a 15 or 30 days earlier cutting of the meadows. When there is no fertiliser application, these meadows could be later cut (after the 1st of July) keeping a still acceptable fodder quality. These results permit to define and argue the conservatory modalities of this meadow ecosystem within the Agri-environemental measures
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Frédérique Grevilliot. Les écosystèmes prairiaux de la plaine alluviale de la Meuse Lorraine : phytosociologie, dynamique et fonctionnement, en relation avec les gradients hydriques et les modifications des pratiques agricoles. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1996. Français. ⟨NNT : 1996METZ057S⟩. ⟨tel-01777125⟩

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