De l’acclimatation à l’adaptation : mécanismes évolutifs, conséquences populationnelles et implication en biosurveillance

Abstract : The regulatory framework defined by the Water Framework Directive requires the development of reliable methodologies for assessing and / or characterizing the health status of aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this thesis was to identify the relative roles of environmental parameters (temperature, seasonal cycle, mineralization), population characteristics and anthropic pressures on biomarker responses in a model aquatic organism, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). A sister species, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, which invaded more recently our waterways, has been used in parallel and its potential as a biomonitor has also been evaluated. For this purpose, a battery of a dozen sub-cellular biomarkers was measured in different populations of the two species living in contrasting environments, at different times of the year, but also under laboratory stresses. The selected biomarkers corresponded to different physiological and / or antitoxic functions, and responses with high ecological relevance, such as oxygen consumption or filtration activity, were occasionally followed. These various parameters allowed to question the concepts of sensitivity and vulnerability of the populations and to understand the factors determining biomarker responses. Inter-population differences showed that the accumulation of contaminants by organisms and their biomarker responses depend on environmental quality at the originating site of each population, but also on the season, a confounding factor which must therefore be taken into account during biomonitoring programs. Strong differences in biomarker responses between the two species were also observed, both in situ and during laboratory experiments, emphasizing the need to differentiate the two species, so close they are. The recent invader, D. r. bugensis, presents more plastic responses in situ, but appears less able to manage acute stress in laboratory. Conversely, D. polymorpha, which is about 200 years old in France, appears to be better adapted, with less response variability and a better tolerance to contaminants. This thesis work is part of the BIOMICS convention, carried out in collaboration with ONEMA. It shows that these two species are able to inform about the contamination status of their environment. Variations in biomarker responses at the sub-cellular level indicate early changes in environmental quality. Some biomarkers, however, seem more informative than others do, so the measured battery could be reduced. In the future, this work will allow a better reading and interpretation of biomarkers measured in autochthonous or transplanted populations, and attest the value of biomarkers as tools for assessing aquatic environment quality
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Marine Potet. De l’acclimatation à l’adaptation : mécanismes évolutifs, conséquences populationnelles et implication en biosurveillance. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0256⟩. ⟨tel-01908679⟩

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