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Objets-environnements, des interfaces biomimétiques entre arts plastiques et design, en France, de 1993 à nos jours

Abstract : The observation of the actual artistic productions shows a trend towards a hybridization of disciplines. This statement concerns particularly a type of design practices which is increasingly shifting towards objects manufactured in small quantity, even in unique pieces questioning the relations between the users and their familiar spaces and more specifically their intimate sphere. Even though most designers reject the comparison of their production with plastic arts, we can see that some of them have adopted approaches similar to those of plasticians. The formulation of this hypothesis brings up the questions of the validity of classifications and the legitimacy of the laws presiding to their constitution. Furthermore, the production of designers who integrate similar approaches to those of artists is built on an evolutive mode, the object being developed towards art installation, a form of penetrability a spectator/user can experience. By examining the scales variations and the modular repetition creating a fluid architecture in Ronan and Erwan Bouroullec design, we can understand the shifts operated between the piece and the environment it builds. Scales manipulation questions at the heart of the space itself the established objects classifications as well as their hierarchization (in domestic space and in exhibitions too).These issues are specific to a type of practice, which the poetic uses, of diverted natural products and especially the three systems : vegetal, animal and mineral. The transposition of naturalistic practices aiming at bringing a change through the object ( in the sense of placing it out of the usual context ) derives from considerations around the processes of hybridization. Thus, when one looks at natural history writings, and, in particular, those of Aristotle, Pliny the Elder or the nomenclature of Carl von Linné, we notice the recurrence ( or” survivance” to use the expression initiated by Georges Didi- Huberman) of elements located in an in-between space. Those types that we can describe as “random practices” reveal a constant displacement of the norms and question the determination of the monster. At which moment, can we designate an element as being abnormal? Aren’t there objects which, while presenting all the characteristics of the monster, coincide nonetheless with established models ? The analysis of actual practices standing at a crossroad between plastic arts and design reveals a profound influence from this type of process for a scientific imaginary inspired by the theatrum mundi of the curiosities cabinets. Moreover, we can observe since the beginning of the 1990ies (in particular, following the constitution of the contemporary art collection “Curios & Mirabilia” by Hubert Martin, aiming at confronting a place charged with history , Oiron Castle, to the production of various artists) a resurgence of exhibitions using curio cabinets forms. The aim is to renew the interest in artifacts and especially the relations of those manufactured objects and the poetic universe of nature, a manifestation of visceral attachment to primitive origins. Thus, the symbolic use of the figure of “zoophytes” or animal-plants, mentioned in the most ancient natural history treaties helps to show the transversality of artistic practices trying to dismantle the partitions between disciplines by placing the object as an entity at the crossroad between the creation processes. Through artists, designers and actors of institutions interviews, we can identify too major types of practices inscribed in a fertile prolongation of nature : a type of art which uses the formal aspects of flora and fauna to create a common vocabulary for art and design, alongside with a type of production transposing natural mechanisms which become creation protocols applied to the conception of objects.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 20, 2019 - 3:14:29 PM
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Aurélie Michel. Objets-environnements, des interfaces biomimétiques entre arts plastiques et design, en France, de 1993 à nos jours. Art et histoire de l'art. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0420⟩. ⟨tel-02074225⟩



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