Vers une prise en compte des potentialités des sols dans la planification territoriale et l’urbanisme opérationnel

Abstract : Urban areas, in addition to global environmental issues, concentrate major local environmental concerns such as air quality, urban heat island and flood mitigation. To tackle those issues, every land surface should be considered as a potential supplier of ecosystem services. However, the urban soils contribution remains poorly assessed up to now. As a result, there is a strong lack of consideration by urban planning of the services that urban soils could provide. So, the main goal of this PhD is to propose a methodology that facilitates an advanced integration of urban soils potentials in urban planning. A national survey and some individual interviews with actors of urban planning were conducted. These actors have progressively developed a systemic consideration of urban soils, and do not yet consider them only as land surfaces. Then, soil sampling campaigns were carried out on 10 urban projects, located in three urban areas with contrasted pedoclimatic contexts (Métropole du Grand Nancy, Métropole Aix-Marseille Provence, Nantes Métropole). The description of the pedological pits and the physico-chemical characterization of soil samples led us to conduct a comparative study of their quality. It appears that 49% of the studied soils were not highly anthropized soils (e.g. Anthrosols, Technosols) and presented bio-physico-chemical properties which were similar to surrounding agricultural soils. The results also showed that the highly anthropized soils presented a high variation of their properties. The results of the physico-chemical characterization had been feed into a decision support tool. This DSS could evaluate the capacity of an urban soil to provide some fonctions and ecosystem services. It appears that the highly anthropized soils were able to provide levels of ecosystem services that were equivalent to, or even higher, than those provided by agricultural soils. In result, it has been demonstrated that urban soils could provide some ecosystem services in order to answer to environmental, social and economic challenges. So, the consideration of the potential of soils in an urban project could contribute to improve sustainability of cities, by optimizing the uses of urban soils and preserving the most multifunctional
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Anne Blanchart. Vers une prise en compte des potentialités des sols dans la planification territoriale et l’urbanisme opérationnel. Agronomie. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0203⟩. ⟨tel-02075744⟩

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