Contributions à l'étude des écoulements de fumées dans un bâtiment en situation d'incendie

Abstract : This work is devoted to the evaluation and improvement of zone models, used in fire safety engineering to simulate the smoke propagation in a building in a fire situation. It aims at improving the understanding of the smoke flow in a building. The PhD work is divided into two parts. The first part is essentially devoted to a bibliographical survey and an evaluation of the ability of a zone code CFAST, widely used in fire safety engineering, to simulate smoke flows in a building. Numerical results with CFAST are compared with the data of a real-scale experimental campaign carried out on a three-storey residential building. The second part, more academic, consists of studying the smoke flows in a building. Two phenomena are first studied, namely the smoke filling of a room, and the simultaneous filling and emptying of a naturally ventilated room. Zone models describing these phenomena are presented. Two experimental campaigns are conducted on reduced scale room models, in order to study the two phenomena and to evaluate and improve the zone models. Furthermore, numerical simulations with the CFD code FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) are performed to extend the study field of the smoke filling. Finally, improvements to the zone model are proposed. After studying the phenomena related to smoke flows in a single room, the smoke flows in a multi-compartment configuration, consisting of two rooms connected by a stairwell, are experimentally studied at the laboratory scale
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Samia Haouari Harrak. Contributions à l'étude des écoulements de fumées dans un bâtiment en situation d'incendie. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0014⟩. ⟨tel-02096700⟩

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