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Diversités taxonomique et fonctionnelle des communautés microbiennes en lien avec le cycle du carbone dans un gradient de sols multi-contaminés

Abstract : The iron and steel activities of the last century have left behind multi-contaminated brownfields. This multi-pollution must have led to an adaptation of microbial communities, potentially impacting their diversities and ultimately the soil functioning. In this context, the objectives of my PhD thesis were: i) to study the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities, but also their functional diversity in relation to the carbon cycle, ii) to identify the possible relationships between these two diversities and (iii) to understand the impact of soil characteristics and pollution on communities. In this way, a collection of ten multi-contaminated soils, with both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metallic trace elements (MTE) gradients, was studied. The bacterial and fungal taxonomic diversities were obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and the metabolic functional diversity was estimated through Biolog® and MicroResp™ assays. The degradation of two model carbon substrates, namely 13C-labeled phenanthrene (PHE) and 13C-labeled cellulose (CEL), was also analyzed using Stable Isotope Probing technique, which, by identifying the microorganisms involved in the substrate degradation, allows to link function with taxonomic diversity. Overall, by selecting microorganisms, the contamination level positively and negatively modulated the relative abundance of different bacterial and fungal taxa. Unlike PAH, MTE induced a decrease of metabolic functional diversity, but also a greater zinc tolerance. The functional potential of PAH degradation was positively correlated with the PAH concentration in soils, while the PHE and CEL degradation functions were present in all soils, irrespective of their contamination level. Degradation rates of these compounds were positively correlated with microbial abundance and richness, but not linked to soil pollution. In addition, the PHE degradation rate was explained by the relative abundances of the Massilia and Mycobacterium genera, identified among the active PHE-degrading bacteria. In conclusion, we observed a decrease in the degradation intensity of several carbon compounds, or even the total disappearance of various functions, suggesting a potential dysfunction of carbon cycle in some of the most polluted soils.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 15, 2020 - 2:24:09 PM
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Florian Lemmel. Diversités taxonomique et fonctionnelle des communautés microbiennes en lien avec le cycle du carbone dans un gradient de sols multi-contaminés. Ecotoxicologie. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0004⟩. ⟨tel-02130115⟩



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