Prise en compte de l'anisotropie dans le comportement instantané des géomatériaux pour les calculs d'ouvrages souterrains

Abstract : Within the framework of radioactive waste management, for long-lived and high-level radioactive waste, France has chosen deep geological storage. This storage will be located in a rock formation, in the east of the basin Parisian, in a tectonically stable area. This Callovo-Oxfordian claystone formation was chosen for its radionuclides retention properties since it is not very permeable. An underground research laboratory was built 500 meters deep to study the properties of the rock in-situ. The Callovo-Oxfordian claystone has been shown to exhibit anisotropy related to its geological formation. The main objective of this PhD thesis is to reproduce anisotropic mechanical behaviour using an elasto-plastic constitutive model. The thermo-elasto-viscoplastic and isotropic behaviour model named LKR is the result of all EDF’s knowledge and expertise in the design of underground structures. Therefore, we seek to apply a method of taking into account structural or inherent anisotropy characterizing several types of geomaterials including Callovo-Oxfordian claystone to this LKR constitutive model. In order to achieve this objective, two methods of taking anisotropy into account and developed in the scientific literature are applied to a Drucker-Prager model with linear softening and then are compared to each other. The first method consists of introducing a microstructure or fabric tensor to define the preferential orientations of the material. The second method is the weakness plane approach which consists of describing the anisotropic behaviour of the material through two distinct mechanisms, one describing the behaviour of the isotropic rock matrix and the other describing the weakness planes. It is through this second mechanism that anisotropy is introduced. These two applications were made using the free mechanical simulation software, Code Aster, developed by EDF. This allowed to understand the numerical difficulties of each of these methods, and to choose the most relevant approach for the extension of the LKR model. Thus, it is the method with the fabric tensor which is, in our case, the most suitable. It was therefore applied to the LKR model. This new extension to the model enables the material orientation dependency of the compression strengths to be taken into account. In this work, the mechanics of continuous media are considered. Anisotropy is introduced only into the elasto-plastic mechanism of the LKR behaviour model.
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Inès Djouadi. Prise en compte de l'anisotropie dans le comportement instantané des géomatériaux pour les calculs d'ouvrages souterrains. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0323⟩. ⟨tel-02136945⟩

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