Interaction implant – os élastique micropolaire : une investigation numérique

Abstract : The repair of the human is a sector of activity which requires skills in medical sciences and sciences known as "hard". In many cases, all or part of an organ must be replaced by a substitute made of inert material. This is for example the case in implantology where one is interested in the replacement of teeth. The installation of a dental implant is a surgical act which consists in introducing into the bone of the mandible a device made of inert material intended to receive the dental crown. These prostheses are more or less tolerated by the living organism (about 5% of rejection) and can in some cases lead to a bone ruin or cause infections known as peri-implantitis. To improve the biocompatibility of these medical devices, several tracks are explored. We can focus on the geometry of the implant and its surface condition, the material of the implant or the mechanical bone / implant system. It is in this last frame that we located our work of thesis. The bone / tooth system is a mechanical system subject to repeated intense stress. The levels of stress and deformation achieved during chewing contribute to the overall stability and viability of these living media. These stress and strain levels must be reproduced in the bone in the case of the bone / implant system. It is hoped to ensure the viability of the bone and to avoid the various processes of degradation. It is therefore necessary to simulate and analyze the response of such a system to mechanical stresses. This work requires modeling the behavior of the bone and the implant. The latter is considered as a conventional metallic material stressed in its field of elastic deformation. As for the bone, its fine observation reveals its multi-scale nature and we have chosen to model its behavior by a particularization of Eringen's micromorphic environment. More precisely we have considered it as a micropolar elastic medium. To solve the field equations of the problem, it was necessary to develop a dedicated digital tool. This tool is based on a clever combination of the boundary element method and a meshless method, more precisely a collocation method. At first, in order to understand the principle of the method, we developed the numerical tool to solve a scalar field equation, here equation of transient thermal conduction. We have seen the effectiveness of the method for three-dimensional systems. In a second time we adapted our numerical method to solve vector field equations which are in our case the equations for the micropolar elastic media. The digital tool has been validated on a number of examples having an analytical solution or in comparison with the results of the literature. The digital tool was then applied to the analysis of the bone / implant system. To understand the contribution of the microstructure of a micropolar elastic medium, compared to a conventional elastic medium, we made different studies of the implant / bone system under various mechanical stress considering both types of modeling for the bone. The macroscopic parameters for a micropolar elastic medium are the same as for a conventional elastic medium. The differences obtained will come only from the contribution of the microstructure. The results obtained show that the fine modeling of the mechanical behavior adopted for the bone is realistic with regard to the stresses induced by the stress and to the noticeable decrease of the stress jumps at the bone / metal interface compared to the case of the modeling of the equivalent classic elastic medium. These results have already made it possible to understand certain clinical observations.
Document type :
Theses
File URL :
http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/ulprive/DDOC_T_2019_0054_PIERSON.pdf
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-02348111
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 5, 2019 - 12:29:58 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 6, 2019 - 1:47:13 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02348111, version 1

Citation

Gaël Pierson. Interaction implant – os élastique micropolaire : une investigation numérique. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0054⟩. ⟨tel-02348111⟩

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