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Signatures extracellulaires des potentiels d'action neuronaux : modélisation et analyse

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the modelling, simulation and analysis of signals containing extracellular action potentials (EAPs), as measured in vivo by microelectrodes implanted in the brain. Current models for the EAPs simulation consist either of very detailed and computationally heavy compartmental models or dipole models considered too simplistic. An EAP simulation approach between these two extremes is proposed, where the sum of the contributions of the neuron compartments is treated as a convolution, applied to the membrane currents of a single active compartment. The analysis of EAPs involves a step of classifying the action potentials detected in the recorded signal, which consists in discriminating the forms of action potentials and thus identifying the activity of single neurons In this thesis, a new approach based on Bayesian inference is developed allowing the simultaneous extraction and classification of EAPs. The method is applied to signals generated using the simulation approach proposed above, confirming the quality of the sorting method introduced and illustrating the ability of the simulation method to generate realistic EAPs of various and discriminatory forms. We modified a model of hippocampal activity previously proposed in our team, able to reproduce oscillations in specific frequency bands, by including the EAPs model, which allowed to evaluate the contributions of synaptic activity and that of action potentials the recorded signals. Finally, a study on real signals recorded as part of the study of face perception in humans is conducted, illustrating the performance of the proposed spike sorting method in a real setting and opening the discussion on the perspectives offered by this thesis work for the study of neuroscientific questions based on multiscale signal analysis.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 27, 2020 - 9:15:53 AM
Last modification on : Friday, November 27, 2020 - 9:17:04 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02460893, version 1


Harry Tran. Signatures extracellulaires des potentiels d'action neuronaux : modélisation et analyse. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0125⟩. ⟨tel-02460893⟩



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