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Effets des changements environnementaux sur le fonctionnement des ruisseaux de tête de bassin versant

Abstract : In the current context of environmental changes, many pressures threaten the functioning and integrity of natural environments. Among these pressures, concerns about increasing temperatures and changes in nutrients availability are rising, particularly for freshwater aquatic ecosystems. The consequences of these changes on headwater streams, which contribute to downstream water bodies and provide many ecosystem services, are essential to anticipate in order to plan management and conservation measures. Headwater streams functioning is mainly based on the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter, which is the major carbon input for benthic food webs. To a lesser extent, primary production is represented by the autotrophic organisms of biofilm. Using different approaches (microcosms, mesocosms, in natura), this thesis aims at understanding how microbial and macro-invertebrate compartments, involved in the functioning of headwater streams, react to temperature increases, and at disentangling the combined effects of nutrients availability changes, seasonality, species identity and underlying biotic interactions. The results of this thesis demonstrate that temperature and nutrients have complex effects on stream litter decomposition processes (potentially weak, non-linear and sometimes opposed to the results of the literature). In addition, these studies highlight the importance of taking seasonal effects and temporal dynamics into account in order to improve the understanding of the measured processes in natural or semi-natural environments. Finally, species identity (litter, micro and macro-organisms), species roles in the community (functional groups) and interactions among them (antagonists, facilitators) play a key role in the variability of observed responses, by modulating, for example, the importance of the brown and green pathways in the functioning of these systems. Finally, the variability of the effects of temperature increase and nutrient availability on the functioning of headwater streams, which is strongly linked to the context and level of biological organization, leads to many research opportunities, and in particular for citizen science.
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Alice Gossiaux. Effets des changements environnementaux sur le fonctionnement des ruisseaux de tête de bassin versant. Sciences de l'environnement. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0260⟩. ⟨tel-02558265⟩

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