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Caractérisation et modélisation d’assemblages de tôles en acier inoxydable austénitique brasées et soudées pour des applications d’échangeurs de chaleur

Abstract : The aim of the study relies on an industrial context, in which, high pressure Plate Fin Heat Exchangers (PFHE) made of austenitic stainless steel 316L, are brazed with Ni-Cr-Fe-Si (BNi-5) alloy, then followed by dissimilar multipass TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding process with nickel-based superalloy Inconel 625, used as filler metal. Due to their heterogeneous microstructure and chemical composition, fractures of brazed joints may appear during the welding of brazed assembly. Firstly, microstructural and chemical characterizations are made at the bonding interface between base metal, brazed joints and weld beads, to understand the fracture phenomena. Results show that a brazing cycle promoting the formation of γ-Ni single phase brazed joints, allows avoiding the fracture of brazed joints during welding. However, intergranular Si may involve the formation of hot cracks in brazed joints located in HAZ. The study of GOS (Grain Orientation Spread) through EBSD measurements, allows quantifying the magnitude and spatial distribution of plastic deformation in the HAZ after welding. A welding energy under 1100 J/mm limits the plastic deformation of brazed assemblies. Nanoindentation and tensile tests are also carried out at room temperature to determine the mechanical properties of brazed assembly. The results of tensile tests show that fracture occurs in the 316L, when brazed joints are formed by a γ-Ni single phase. Secondly, an original thermodynamically consistent modeling approach, dedicated to welding applications, is presented to describe the phenomenon of hardening recovery in metals during annealing heat treatment. The constitutive equations are based on a classical thermo-elasto-plastic formulation which is enhanced by a new recovery variable counterbalancing the effect of the hardening through a temperature-dependent evolution law. The model is implemented into the FE solver ABAQUS/Standard with the help of a User Material subroutine (UMAT). The identification of the model parameters is achieved through experimental compressive tests and heat treatments on 316L austenitic stainless steel. In addition, to evaluate the capabilities of the model, residual stress measurements are carried out on a welded plate and compared to values computed by numerical simulation. The obtained values match the experimental measurements. Finally, three-dimensional simulations of multipass welding are realized to estimate the stress and deformation fields during TIG welding process of a heat exchanger. The maximum stress in HAZ may reach 600 MPa during the cooling of the first welding pass. Thus, the results of numerical simulation are in agreements with the experimental observations, indicating that in case of fracture of brazed joints during welding, the fracture occurs from the cooling of the first passes.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 7, 2020 - 2:20:48 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:49:45 PM


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Loïc Mouelle. Caractérisation et modélisation d’assemblages de tôles en acier inoxydable austénitique brasées et soudées pour des applications d’échangeurs de chaleur. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Lorraine, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LORR0068⟩. ⟨tel-02960177⟩



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