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Development and characterization of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) plant-derived products as natural bioactive compounds

Abstract : Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important for nutrition and health, by virtue of their importance in lipid homeostasis, and the fact that PUFA deficiencies can increase risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds are rich in PUFA (80%) and contain the highest known levels in plants of the essential omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). High degree of unsaturation in edible oils can reduce oxidative stability causing a loss of nutritional value. Nanotechnology can be used to improve chia seed oil quality and safety, increase bioavailability, and expand the scope of applications. Towards this goal, our objective was to prepare and characterize chia seed lipids in the form of nanoliposomes (NL) and nanoemulsions (NE), and to evaluate their potential use as bioactive products. The first step was to characterize lipid fractions. Lipids were extracted from the French ORURO variety of chia seeds using modified Folch method. Ten fatty acid species and six phospholipid (PL) classes were identified in chia seed lipid extract by gas chromatography and LC-MS, respectively, with the highest level of fatty acids being ALA (62%). The presence of a solid residue was detected following evaporation of the solvent to obtain chia seed oil. Analyses by thin layer chromatography and LC-MS demonstrated that this residue contained the polar lipids including PL that were no longer in the chia oil after removal of solvent by evaporation. NE were prepared from chia seed oil and the chia PL-rich solid residue, and NL from the PL-rich solid residue. Physicochemical characterization including analysis of the polydispersity index (PDI), size, and zeta-potential indicated that both NE and NL were monodispersed solutions of stable (low negative zeta potential) particles with a size between 104-118 nm. These preparations were spherical and multilayered (transmission electron microscopy) and remained stable even 5 days after preparation. In addition, enzymatic assay confirmed PL content in both NE and NL. MTT cell viability assay showed little to no cell toxicity (up to 150 µg/mL NE or NL) following 24 h incubation with cultured hepatocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using chia lipids for the preparation of stable non-toxic omega-3 PUFA rich NL and NE, which represent potential bioactive vectors for both preventive and therapeutic applications in human health.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 13, 2021 - 11:35:35 AM
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Daria Kuznetcova. Development and characterization of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) plant-derived products as natural bioactive compounds. Food and Nutrition. Université de Lorraine; ITMO University, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020LORR0266⟩. ⟨tel-03285324⟩



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