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Les phénolamides de la tomate : développement d’une approche d’ingénierie métabolique pour l’étude de leurs fonctions in planta, et évaluation de leurs activités biologiques

Abstract : Phenolamides are a family of specialized metabolites that accumulate in a wide variety of plant species. They have functions in flower initiation, are involved in plant responses to stress, and they are part of the composition of the walls of pollen grains. In addition, their therapeutic bioactivity has been described as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial or anti-cancer molecule. Recent laboratory work has shown that the tomato produces phenolamides, especially when it is attacked by the pest Tuta absoluta. Their role in the defense of plants remains unclear. In this context, a first objective of my thesis was to modulate the composition of phenolamides in tomatoes in order to assess the consequences of this modulation on the functioning of the plant and its ability to defend itself. A second objective was to determine the therapeutic potential of these phenolamides identified in tomatoes, by screening tests for activity. A prerequisite for the generation of plants genetically modified for their capacity to synthesize phenolamides, has been to identify new genes controlling the accumulation of phenolamides in the plant. We have exploited our RNA Seq tomato bank and work in other Solanaceae. We have identified ten candidate genes, two of which code for transcription factors and eight for acyltransferases. The functional characterization of these candidates has so far not led to the identification of any new enzymatic function associated with the phenolamide pathway. This work should be continued by broadening the spectrum of substrate tested on the identified candidates and by targeting other candidate genes. To generate the genetically modified plants, I carried out a methodological work, in the laboratory, to develop transformation and regeneration protocols on the tomato species, and the gene editing technique, (CRISPR / cas9). The techniques developed lead to a high efficiency of transformation, whether in overexpression or in gene editing. We thus generated 94 lines of tomatoes in which the expression of the putrescine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (PHT) genes responsible for the accumulation of caffeoylputrescine was modified upward or downward, as was the expression of the transcription factor solyc06g083900 .2 likely to be involved in the accumulation of a wider set of phenolamides. The plants obtained are now available for characterization work on their metabolic content and the physiological consequences of the modifications generated. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of some tomato phenolamides induced by the herbivory of T. absoluta. Obtaining pure molecules required the help of chemists. Among the molecules evaluated, caffeoylputrescine and kukoamine A exhibit moderate antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus. The tests revealed the anti-inflammatory property of caffeoylputrescine on macrophage cells. This work confirms the therapeutic potential of phenolamides. They will be prosecuted for the evaluation of their anti-cancer properties.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 28, 2021 - 9:09:31 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 29, 2021 - 3:46:28 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, December 29, 2021 - 6:10:13 PM

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Marwa Roumani. Les phénolamides de la tomate : développement d’une approche d’ingénierie métabolique pour l’étude de leurs fonctions in planta, et évaluation de leurs activités biologiques. Biologie végétale. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0091⟩. ⟨tel-03356386⟩

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