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Theses

Élaboration d'une méthodologie d'évaluation qualitative du risque biologique

Abstract : In France, more than 4.8 million workers (25 % of employees) report they are exposed to biological agents. The biological risk is taken into account in several occupational sector but, in other ones, this risk remains unknown and poorly assessed. The lack of an evaluation of biological risk (EvBR) is partly due to a lack of knowledge of this risk, which is still poorly documented, but also to the absence of a standardised approach adapted to the assessment of biological risk. This work consisted of proposing a methodology to aid in the evaluation of biological risk (EvBR) for employers and prevention specialists allowing them to define an action plan in terms of prevention. To achieve this objective, we first carried out an inventory and an in-depth and critical analysis of existing approaches to EvBR. Next, work was carried out to identify the structure of the most appropriate methodology and to identify the risk descriptors that would allow the most exhaustive assessment possible. Finally, on the basis of these initial achievements, a methodology was designed, applied and validated in companies in an experimental sector, composting. Beyond the exploitation of bibliographical knowledge and the contribution of companies, the construction of this reference methodology requires new provisions: (i) the determination of biological agents within reservoirs, (ii) the creation of a classification based on Franco-German classifications accounting for 18,388 species, and (iii) the creation of a five-level hierarchy of hazards that integrates all hazards other than infectious ones. The methodology developed is operational and has been deployed in companies. The implementation of the reference methodology shows that it is more preventive than other approaches used in parallel and the exposure levels recorded in the Colchic database. The work carried out during the thesis therefore made it possible to design an EvBR methodology that allows employers to better estimate the risks to improve the working conditions of exposed employees. It also opens up necessary research and development prospects that will make it possible to improve its accuracy, particularly with regard to biodiversity and the dangerousness of biological agents, the measurement of exposures and, more broadly, epidemiological studies.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 21, 2022 - 3:28:29 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, March 22, 2022 - 3:35:19 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03615486, version 1

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Sarah Burzoni. Élaboration d'une méthodologie d'évaluation qualitative du risque biologique. Toxicologie. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0175⟩. ⟨tel-03615486⟩

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