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Synthèse d’agrégats organo-minéraux : analogues des particules en suspension de rivières

Abstract : Suspended matter (SM) is involved in the transfer of matter from the continents to the oceans. TSS is quantitatively derived from several sources: erosion of continental surfaces, remobilisation of sediments, aquatic biological activity, and anthropogenic activity introducing particles directly into the aquatic environment. Their composition, size distribution and nature will depend on all the processes that control erosion, biological activity and human activities within a catchment. The objective of this thesis is to develop model systems that mimic suspended matter to better understand the reactivity of these natural particles. The question arises as to the choice of constituents to model these model systems. The work on the suspended matter of the Moselle allows the selection of constituents typical of the natural suspended matter transported by the surface waters of the Moselle basin and by the Orne. In order to reproduce the precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides on illite particles, a weakly concentrated Fe(NO3)3 solution (10-4M) to avoid alteration of the illite particles will be added to an illite suspension and hydrolysed by a KOH solution. The concentration and rate of KOH addition, the titration method and the Fe/illite ratio added during this synthesis will be studied. As the association between illite and polymers is poor in the literature, it was necessary first to prepare an additional series of binary illite-polysaccharide samples to better highlight the influence of iron particles on the interactions between the polymer (Dextran or sodium alginate) and illite particles. In the case of the formation of ternary aggregates, there was no established protocol at the beginning of the thesis. The work first consisted in testing several preparation or synthesis conditions, checking the reproducibility and understanding the influence of each synthesis parameter. The thesis is divided into 4 parts. The first part is a reminder of the different knowledge established on suspended matter, particularly its composition and origins. A summary of the materials present in suspended solids as a subject of research is also developed. A second part presents the strategies for the formation of binary and ternary aggregates as well as the choice of analytical techniques to meet the objectives. These strategies are based on the choice made from several tests carried out during this work. A third part deals with the results obtained on the formation of binary aggregates based on illite and polysaccharides. This chapter details the formation of illite-polysaccharide aggregates as a function of several parameters such as the stirring time of the mixture, the concentration of the bivalent salt CaCl2, the concentration and molecular weight of the polysaccharide and the added polysaccharide. Chapter 4 is presented as a scientific paper under review for Applied Clay Science. This chapter, in the form of a scientific article in preparation, first presents the formation of binary Fe-illite aggregates as a function of several parameters such as the rate of addition or the concentration of added KOH and the amount of added iron in the illite suspension. A reminder of some of the results of chapter III is also given. In a second step, the formation of ternary aggregates is compared to that of binary illite-polysaccharide aggregates. A general conclusion is also given at the end of this thesis, allowing us to propose some perspectives to this work.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 6, 2022 - 5:25:49 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 10, 2022 - 3:38:03 PM


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Erwin Henry. Synthèse d’agrégats organo-minéraux : analogues des particules en suspension de rivières. Interfaces continentales, environnement. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0209⟩. ⟨tel-03633118⟩



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