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Interactions des espèces d’arbres en peuplements mélangés : effets sur la réponse à la sécheresse des arbres et rôle des mécanismes de partage des ressources en eau et en lumière

Abstract : Biodiversity, through tree species interactions, can support many ecosystem functions and services in forest ecosystems. However, in the current context of climate change, the influence of these interactions on the response of forest ecosystems to extreme climatic events, such as drought, is still under debate. Moreover, evidence for the underlying above-ground and below-ground interaction mechanisms that can explain these relationships between diversity and forest ecosystem functioning is still rare.The first objective of my thesis work was to determine the effect of tree species interactions in mixed stands on tree water relations and drought response. My second objective was to identify below-ground or above-ground mechanisms related to resource partitioning that could explain mixture effects on functioning, such as depth of water uptake by roots or canopy space filling by tree crowns.This work was carried out, within the framework of the ANR DiPTICC project, in two distinct experimental systems: an observational network in mature natural forests in the south-east of France (GMAP) and a young experimental plantation near Bordeaux (ORPHEE). I worked on three types of two-species mixtures: beech (Fagus sylvatica) - fir (Abies alba) and beech - downy oak (Quercus pubescens) along the GMAP network and birch (Betula pendula) - maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) at ORPHEE. My work is based on an empirical approach, with ecophysiological and light interception measurements, under contrasting conditions of soil water availability. Functions such as transpiration or water use efficiency (estimated by measuring carbon isotopic composition) were studied.My work shows that in young and old stands, the water relations and drought response of the species studied are little impacted by species interactions. Differences among species in water extraction depths, when present, did not necessarily result in higher water availability for species in mixed stands under drought conditions. Contrary to hypotheses often made in the literature, this suggests that belowground mechanisms would seldom drive the effects of species interactions. In contrast, I observed that the mechanisms of crown complementarity generated changes in stand structure and light interception and appeared to have a strong impact on the functioning of mixed stands.My work confirms that, for the same combination of tree species, the species-mixing effects on tree functioning are highly dependent on local environmental conditions. It is therefore essential for forest managers to take these local conditions into account when making choices about the species composition of future forests. Overall, we found no negative mixture effects on water relations, suggesting that managing forests in favor of mixed stands remains an interesting option for managers to maintain many other forest ecosystem functions and services under climate change.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 27, 2022 - 2:50:17 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 28, 2022 - 9:15:19 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03653200, version 1

Citation

Soline Martin-Blangy. Interactions des espèces d’arbres en peuplements mélangés : effets sur la réponse à la sécheresse des arbres et rôle des mécanismes de partage des ressources en eau et en lumière. Sylviculture, foresterie. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0214⟩. ⟨tel-03653200⟩

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