Modélisation de l'arc électrique dans un disjoncteur à vide

Abstract : A model of a diffuse arc in a vacuum circuit breaker with an axial magnetic field (AMF) has been developed with the ultimate aim to better understand the transition of the arc from a diffuse mode to a more confined mode. The interelectrode plasma is simulated from the exit of the mixing region on the cathode side to the entrance of the anode sheath. The two-dimensional model is based on the solution of a system of two-fluid (ions and electrons) hydrodynamic equations, including in particular the energy balance equations relative to both the ions and the electrons, which are treated as non-magnetized particles. It is demonstrated that ionisation and recombination processes, as well as viscous effects, can be neglected. Radiation losses are not taken into account in a first approximation. In addition to the forces due to the AMF, the model considers the forces created by the three components of the magnetic field induced by the arc current. The possibility of both supersonic (at low current density) and subsonic (at high current density) ionic flow regimes is considered. On the cathode side, the boundary conditions are specified using results from the literature. On the anode side, they are based on a simplified description of the anode sheath. The simulation results presented show a constriction of the current lines, emphasize the differences in the behaviour of the ions at low and high current densities, and provide some insight on the influence of various operating parameters (arc current, gap length). The present work comprises also an experimental study, based on high-speed camera visualisations of the arc and measurements of the temperature at the anode surface
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Yilin Langlois. Modélisation de l'arc électrique dans un disjoncteur à vide. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010INPL062N⟩. ⟨tel-01748841⟩

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