Contribution à la modélisation des processus d'agrégation et de transfert d'éléments nutritifs dans les Technosols construits à partir de déchets

Abstract : Greening of urban spaces requires large amounts of arable soil which is a non-renewable resource. To preserve this resource, a strategy is proposed to build fertile Technosols from wastes and by-products by pedological engineering. The properties of Technosols are highly influenced by their constitutive technogenic materials. In order To create favourable mixtures of materials for urban plant growth a preliminary scientific analysis is required. The fertility of the mixtures and their evolution can be assessed by the study of the aggregation process and nutrients transfer during the first stage of pedogenesis. An experimental model of constructed Technosol is proposed in this work. From this model a methodology is developed for the selection of eleven constitutive materials (e.g. bricks, compost made of sludge and green waste, concrete, demolition rubble, excavated earth materials, green wastes, paper mill sludge, sewage sludge, street sweeping wastes, track ballast). Each of these materials is representative of wastes deposits listed European wide and they are suitable candidates for the construction of fertile soils. The fertility of each pure material and of selected mixtures has been determined. Thereafter, experiments under controlled conditions enabled to assess the impact of different pedogenesis factors (e.g. anthropogenic, climatic and biological) involved in the definition of the fertility of constructed Technosols. The results demonstrate (i) the feasibility of the formulation of fertile constructed Technosols exclusively with two or three wastes presenting contrasted physico-chemical properties; and (ii) that the properties of selected mixtures can be modelled using the initial properties of their constitutive parent materials ; (iii) that during the first stage of pedogenesis of the mixtures, depending on parent materials nature and properties, stable aggregates can be formed, (iv) that nutrients transfer are highly dependent on organic matter nature and the process of particles mixing. The delivery of nutrients (e.g. phosphorus) seems to be related to the amounts and size of the formed aggregates and, consequently, to the established porosity. The understanding of the functioning and evolution of Technosols constructed with waste materials provides new knowledge for the development of pedological engineering. The methodology of wastes selection and the mixing process developed in this work enables us to propose mixtures and constructed soils favourable to various uses. The evolution models of the mixtures developed in this work allow the prediction of the physico-chemical fertility of constructed Technosols. The results acquired during this thesis are the main basis of a decision support tool for green spaces operators developed in the framework of the research program SITERRE-ADEME (2010-2015). The use of this decision support tool for plant biomass production, has to be associated with an expertise in soil construction
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Sarah Rokia. Contribution à la modélisation des processus d'agrégation et de transfert d'éléments nutritifs dans les Technosols construits à partir de déchets. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0009⟩. ⟨tel-01750669⟩

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