Étude expérimentale du dégazage volcanique

Abstract : Noble gas geochemistry is an important tool for constraining the history of the volatile phase during magmatic eruptions. Degassing processes control the gas flux from liquid to bubble, leading to solubility- or kinetic-control of the fractionation mechanisms. Noble gases have no chemical interactions at magmatic conditions and are therefore well adapted to tracing gas fractionation mechanisms during the evolution of the gas phase. Well constrained diffusion coefficients, and their dependence on temperature, of several noble gases are critical for estimating the timescale of a plinian eruption, for example. During the quench phase of the lava ejected in the plume, atmospheric noble gases will diffuse through the liquid/glass shell surrounding gas bubbles. Diffusion of these atmospheric gases determine the gas content measured in the eruption products, which are therefore a function of the timescale of the eruption, the initial and final temperatures, the glass/liquid shell thickness and the cooling rate of the magma. Therefore, it should be possible to calculate plinian eruption timescales from noble gas fractionation patterns trapped in pumice. However, in order to perform the diffusion calculations, it is first necessary to model the diffusive system: a numerical resolution of the diffusion equations for hollow sphere geometry is required as there are no analytical solutions (for complex thermal histories such as for a plinian ash column). In order to constrain the diffusion mechanisms (He, Ne and Ar) in silicate glasses and liquids, several synthetic basaltic glasses were produced. Diffusion coefficients were measured from low temperatures (423 K) to the Tg (glass transition temperature) of the system (1005 K). These experiments allowed us to investigate the physical processes that limit diffusion in glassy media: He, Ne and Ar diffusion in silicate glasses show non-Arrhenian behavior as the Tg is approached thought to be due to structural relaxation of the silicate network itself. Complementary diffusion experiments (on He and Ar) at super-liquidus conditions (1673 K and 1823 K) provide important information on the temperature dependency of He/Ar fractionation in silicate liquids. These diffusion measurements required that a new experimental protocol was developed in order to investigate noble gas diffusivities in silicate melts. The results show that relative He and Ar diffusion (i.e. DHe/DAr) decreases with temperature, from 165 at temperatures close to the Tg to 3.2 at high (>1823K) temperature. The measured coefficient diffusions are incorporated to a numerical model of the diffusion equations for a hollow sphere geometry that were developed as a MatLab code as part of this thesis work. This enabled us to determine the likely timescales of plinian eruptions from existing noble gas measurements. These results also have important implications for mechanisms of degassing in basaltic magmas: previous work used diffusivities measured on glasses in order to extrapolate to noble gas diffusivities at magmatic temperatures. Our measurements show that kinetic fractionation of noble gases during degassing of basaltic magmas has likely been overstated because noble gas diffusion in the glass cannot be extrapolated to the liquid state
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Julien Amalberti. Étude expérimentale du dégazage volcanique. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0001⟩. ⟨tel-01751180⟩

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