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Les gisements d'or comme témoins de l'histoire géologique du craton oues-africain : apports de la datation

Abstract : The West African craton is a region enriched in gold deposits and occurrences which are hosted in Paleoproterozoic terrains. These Birimian terrains formed during the Eburnean orogeny which took place between 2.25 and 1.98 Ga. Six gold deposits situated in Burkina Faso and Ghana were studied in order to define a correlation between the different orogenic phases and the mineralizing event(s). The detailed study of the mineralization of the six deposits confirmed the importance of the orogenic gold deposits in the West African craton. Moreover, the existence of a Cu (±Au) porphyry deposit was revealed in the mining district of Gaoua, southwestern Burkina Faso. Our observations highlighted the polyphased character of gold mineralization within nearly all of the studied deposits. Re-Os dating performed on sulfides directly linked to the gold mineralization permitted two main metallogenic periods to be distinguished. The first period was coincident with the D1 and D2 orogenic phases, occurring between 2200 and 2120 Ma, and representing respectively magmatic accretion and transition towards a collisional regime. This period was characterized by low grade disseminated gold mineralization. The second metallogenic period took place during the later brittle deformational phases of the orogeny, ca. 2050-2040 Ma. This secondary mineralization contains visible gold concentrated in veins, breccias and shear zones, and displays higher gold grades. Geochronological evidence for the existence of early gold mineralization could have consequences for the understanding of paleoplacer-type deposits, observed primarily in Ghana. Indeed, this primary mineralization could represent a potential source for gold found in Tarkwaian paleoplacers, which formed after 2130 Ma, and for which the provenance of the gold remains unidentified
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  • HAL Id : tel-01751302, version 1

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Élodie Le Mignot. Les gisements d'or comme témoins de l'histoire géologique du craton oues-africain : apports de la datation. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0269⟩. ⟨tel-01751302⟩

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