Évaluation de la qualité de l’eau du bassin inférieur de la rivière du Litani, Liban : approche environnementale

Abstract : The objective of this study was to evaluate water quality of the lower Litani River and assess its feasibility for multi-purpose usage as one of the solutions to the aggravated water problems in Lebanon, To identify possible sources of metals (i.e. geological and/or anthropogenic) and then to characterize the chemical behavior of these metals in water and bed sediments, water and bed load sediments were sampled at six representatives sites which are investigated over three seasons of the year 2011-2012 (i.e. rainy, mid-rainy and dry seasons), The PCA (principal component analysis) method was used to interpret the elemental concentrations in the river water. Results show that among 18 variables, which were evaluated to characterize their physic-chemistry and metals, there are only 4 (Fe, NO2-, CaCO3, Cu) that were determined the type of environmental studied; Three groups were identified and differentiated by PCA according to the seasons. The first group includes all statements made in the mid rainy season and has a dialogue rich in Fe and NO2, and low in NH4 and EC. The second group formed in dry season, and surveys show physicochemical characteristics opposite to those in the first group, the third group formed in mid rainy, and showed the low concentration of K+, PO43- and Cl-. Sediments were characterized by a set of cations exchange capacity, granulometric, diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR( The FTIR analysis shows that the amount of montomorillonite is less than kaolinite and very much less than quartz and calcite. Pearson’s correlation was also performed in this study to compare to and determine the correlation between heavy metals in the sediments. Geo-accumulation (Igeo) index, Contamination Factor (Cf), and contamination degree (Cd) were also applying to assess the level of contamination in the sites. The results shows that the concentration of Pb, Fe are high in the site S5, S6 and the value of Cr ,Ni, are high in the S6, this results suggest that special attention must be given to the issue of element re-mobilization, because a large portion of elements in sediments are likely to release back into the water column. All the sites are characterized by moderate to highly microbial polluted range. The degree of contamination was increased in dry season. However, no critical physicochemical pollution has been reported in this part of the river; except the high concentration of Fe and NO2- in all investigated sites due to the reject of wastewater and to the distribution of touristic activities in the LLRB, the Concentrations of seven heavy metals is high(Cu, Fe, Cd , Mn , Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb) for sediment is higher according to Consensus-based sediment quality guidelines of Wisconsin (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2003) were applied to assess metal contamination in sediment
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Nada Nehme. Évaluation de la qualité de l’eau du bassin inférieur de la rivière du Litani, Liban : approche environnementale. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0296⟩. ⟨tel-01751390⟩

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