Interactions entre les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques et les plantes supérieures : prélèvement et réponses toxiques

Abstract : In Europe and France, the end of industrial activities associated to coal exploitation left numerous wastelands contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Rhizodegradation enables their remediation by using plants associated with microflora. However, the efficiency of this technique, demonstrated at the laboratory scale, is often limited in situ by high plant mortality or inhibited growth. Furthermore, the PAH uptake in plants may threaten the food chain. This work studied the interactions between maize, chosen as model plant, and PAH from industrial contaminated soils or from simplified model systems, i.e. sand spiked with phenanthrene. PAH uptake and their effect on the plant physiology were assessed using systems of increasing complexity, to solve questions raised at different scales, from the cell to the whole plant. Mechanisms involved in PAH uptake and translocation are proposed and the toxic responses of the plant are detailed. Results lead to a new hypothesis: PAH from the solid phase penetrate the roots by physical and direct contact and not only through uptake in pore water. Main arguments are: similar molecular distributions in soils and roots, low correlations between PAH concentrations in pore water and roots and overprediction of bioaccumulation by using predicting models based on root absorption in soil solution. Localization of PHE in roots using microscopic tools showed early suberisation of endoderm and exoderm in presence of PHE, even at low concentration (50 mg kg-1). Nutrient uptake seemed not affected but large elements accumulations and depletion were observed in aerial part of maize. These nutritional disruptions may affect plant functioning and consequently, decrease its growth or even cause its death
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Joan Dupuy. Interactions entre les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques et les plantes supérieures : prélèvement et réponses toxiques. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0299⟩. ⟨tel-01751409⟩

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