Biodiversité et caractéristiques physico-chimiques des sols de jardins associatifs urbains français

Abstract : Community gardens (e.g. allotments, shared gardens) currently experience a renewed interest among the French and are often associated with many functions and services within urban ecosystems (vegetable supply, biodiversity). As such, garden soils are a major concern and their characteristics (physico-chemical as well as biological ones) need to be better understood. What connection is there between the functional quality of garden soils and the alteration of their physico-chemical characteristics by gardening practices? What influence do these properties in garden soils have on functional and taxonomic biodiversity? In order to answer these questions, investigations were conducted in vegetable gardens chosen as representative of the ecosystemic variability within French territory. On one hand work was done on the topsoil's agronomical properties and toxicity. On the other hand these soils were characterised using several biological indicators, such as vegetal species and soil microarthropods. With the help of several databases, we were able to place these garden soils among other french topsoils by comparing them to other land uses. Despite having high total metallic contents garden soils show an undeniable physico-chemical fertility, and support a high level of soil biodiversity. In contrast, an increasing plant biotic homogenisation can be observed within cities. Indeed, there is a selection of species with traits that are particularly adapted to urban environments. In conclusion, even though garden soils exist in a highly anthropised urban context they are not degraded ecosystems, but rather a precious resource
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Sophie Joimel. Biodiversité et caractéristiques physico-chimiques des sols de jardins associatifs urbains français. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0037⟩. ⟨tel-01751521⟩

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