Étude des effets de l’eau sur les phénomènes de rupture et de déformation affectant les carrières souterraines de craie

Abstract : The risk of instability of underground structures (natural or anthropogenic) involves over 10 000 towns in France. The accidents due to the sudden collapse of underground quarries are among the most destructive, both humanly and materially. The evolution of possible instabilities, since the issues are significant, implies to enrich current knowledge to predict their extent and their impact on the surface. Previous work has demonstrated the importance of the hydro-mechanical coupling in the diagnosis of stability. The complexity of the chalk-water interaction phenomenon is due to many environmental factors and sensitivity to each factor depends entirely on the chalk considered. The main objective of this thesis is to study the influence of water and water-rock interaction on the mechanical behaviour of three chalks as part of a multi-scale and multi-physics approach. The study of physical and mechanical characteristics of chalks from three underground quarries situated in the Parisian Basin, and their interaction with water was carried out. The results obtained through short-term hydro-mechanical tests remain consistent with the literature. The "ageing" of chalk from the underground quarries subjected to fluctuations in the water table has been proven and characterized. It is expressed, based on the chalk considered, by a change in the shape and size of crystals in the microstructure involving improved mechanical properties at the edge of the pillar to the detriment of the heart, or by the presence of traces of dissolution whose frequency increases as one moves from the heart, or by increasing the number of microcracks in the heart causing a decrease in the properties of the chalk. The study of the long-term behaviour of each chalk was developed through uniaxial creep tests with controlled humidity and waterlogging. It was established among other things that creep depends on the mineralogy / microstructure and the deviatoric stress-humidity couple but not on the loading history. The mechanisms believed to be the origin of creep deformations are of a physico-mechanical nature and involve the breaking and the restoring of electrostatic bonds between grains. The interpretation of all the tests carried out allowed to quantify the importance of the relative contributions of various parameters on the long-term behaviour. The long-term goal remains to power both the expertise and the model calculations so that one can predict the impact of a particular variation of the groundwater level on the long-term stability of chalk underground quarries. A rheological model has been developed in this direction within the INERIS (Souley et al. 2016)
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Noémie Lafrance. Étude des effets de l’eau sur les phénomènes de rupture et de déformation affectant les carrières souterraines de craie. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Lorraine, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0059⟩. ⟨tel-01752257⟩

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