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Estudio de las propiedades de adsorción – desorción de gases en los sistemas petroleros no convencionales en México y su aplicacion al modelo cinético de generación de hidrocarburos

Abstract : The main objective of this research was to conduct a study of the gas adsorption/desorption properties in unconventional reservoirs located in the north-eastern Mexico. For this, previously was carried a literature review concerning gas exploration retaking existing research works in Sabinas Basin and Chihuahua Basin (Camacho Ortegón 2009, De la O Burrola, 2013), in order to understand their behavior from the viewpoint of unconventional reservoirs. The works of these authors include models that describe the thermomechanical history of the Sabinas Basin, geological events that define the behavior of the petroleum system, its evolution and its relationship with hydrocarbon generation. To continue with the development of this project, in 2012 a sampling campaign was performed in charge of the Servicio Geológico Mexicano (SGM), providing a total of 50 samples divided between the Sabinas Basin and the Chihuahua Basin, for their characterization. The general characterization included: (1) immediate or primary moisture and ash analysis (2) elemental analysis (C, H, O, N, and S) for determining, (3) petrographic analysis to determine the organic matter type (4) Rock-Eval®6 Pyrolysis, to know its oil potential generation. Together, these analyzes allowed us to evaluate and select 10 samples divided between the study basins, to develop adsorption/desorption tests and interpretation of parameters affecting the adsorption process. For the Sabinas Basin, there were observed storage capacities of methane gas of 202.11 scf/ton (7.07m3/ton) to 364.76 scf/ton (10.47m3/ton), whereas for the Chihuahua basin there were presented lower capacities of sorption, with a rank from 0.84 scf/ton (0.023m3/ton) to 3.48 scf/ton (0.084m3/ton). The tests results of adsorption/desorption let us carry out an interpretation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the samples, that influencing in the storage capacity of gas in the kerogen. Anticipating as a general conclusion that, the gas adsorption increases with the rank/maturity. Also, it was studied the influence of the maceral composition in the process of sorption and, it was verified that the capacity of gas storage is closely related to the vitrinite content. Which led us to return to the statements of some authors (Chalmers y Bustin, 2008; Zhang et al, 2012) who verified that the capacity of adsorption on base to COT increases in the next order: type I < type II < type III. This was attributed to the greater capacity of adsorption of the vitrinite in comparison with other macerals types. In this regard, and carrying out a thorough observation to the kinetic models, and mainly in the adsorption factors (W) proposed by the most recent version of the Software PetroMod (Type I, W=0.80), (Type II W=0.75) and (Type III W=0.68), it was found a discrepancy regarded to the bibliography reported by (Chalmers y Bustin, 2008; Zhang et al, 2012). In this context, the results of adsorption/desorption gas of this research were retaken to make the calculation of the adsorption factor (W) to build and propose a new kinetic model applicable to the simulation process of the Software PetroMod for the hydrocarbons generation, taking into account the adsorption of the hydrocarbons produced. The new kinetic model allowed us propose a readjust to the geochemical modeling for the Sabinas basin, comparing at the same time the effect and the influence of the adsorption factors at the moment of the generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons. This kinetic model through the Factor (W) results important, since it takes the amount of adsorbed hydrocarbons into the source rock, this factor evidently induces a control on the behavior of unconventional character for the source rock, thus producing a change into the expulsion balance of the hydrocarbons from the kerogen. The results obtained from the methodology, implemented analysis and kinetic model building used in this research allowed to establish a number of new contributions for Sabinas Basin kerogens, with which can be divided mainly into two parts: 1.- For the adsorption/desorption gas, were studied the physical-chemical variables which affect the ability of sorption gas in Coal and Shale gas samples (Maturity/range, maceral composition and mineral matter content). Based on the results of organic petrography analysis was possible to observe and verify that existing a higher sorption capacity of methane in coal samples when the range/maturity increases. Vitrinite content is another important parameter in terms of gas storage capacity when compared with other macerals, due to its microporous structure. In this research it was verified that the amount of gas adsorbed increases with increasing vitrinite content, however, are produced lower gas adsorption curves in samples containing more inertinite. It was also verified that the increase in the content of mineral matter involves a decrease in the sorption capacity of gas in the coal. 2.- On the other hand the new kinetic model proposed in this work and their implementation in the simulation process to Sabinas Basin, allowed a readjustment in the balance of hydrocarbon expulsion of the source rock. To really know the effect of the kinetic model for the simulation process, was performed a comparative analysis from the kinetic model with a Factor (W) = 0.92 proposed in this work with respect the same kinetic model using a Factor (W) = 0.68 as standard parameter proposed by the Software PetroMod for kerogen type III, this allowed us to observe the changes generated from your application. The observations on the variation of some parameters indicate that the model is highly sensitive to factor (W) at time of the hydrocarbons expulsion. This obviously induces changes in the expectation of hydrocarbon migration and charging of reservoirs, has been demonstrated in this work
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Juan José Enciso Cárdenas. Estudio de las propiedades de adsorción – desorción de gases en los sistemas petroleros no convencionales en México y su aplicacion al modelo cinético de generación de hidrocarburos. Earth Sciences. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Español. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0220⟩. ⟨tel-01754483⟩



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