Influence des incertitudes géométriques et de la méthode de modélisation dans l'analyse de stabilité des talus rocheux : application aux mines à ciel ouvert

Abstract : The stability of open-cast operations (mines or quarries), excavated in rock mass depends on their geometry, the geometrical characteristics of the rock mass fractures (orientation and spacing) and the mechanical characteristics of the rock mass and the discontinuities. The assessment of the rock instability risk depends on the quantity and quality of the available information on the rock mass and the analysis methods used for the evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the rock block collection. Different sites of natural rock slopes, of road cuts, and of open-cast mines and quarries, described in the present document, show that the known information can vary a lot from one site to the other. The steps of data gathering and analysis, then the modelling step used to analyze the stability of the rock slope, lead to uncertainties. The present work deals in particular with the influence of the geometrical uncertainties, and the different clustering methods, to define families of fractures, are examined. The combination of works suggested by several authors leads to a new method called PSMY. This method, together with the spectral method, was coded in the Mathematica platform, and the obtained results are compared with "hand-made" clusters, done with the DIPS software. The clustering methods are presented according to the ratio of classified orientations. The orientation and spacing of fracture families are fitted by statistical law. The statistical parameters are compared according to the clustering method used. These parameters have an influence on the construction of the rock mass geometrical model, called DFN (Discrete Fracture Network). The influence of the clusters on the stability analysis is studied from the stochastic models based on the limit equilibrium analysis, in the SWEDGE and RESOBLOK software. These programs do not take into account the same uncertainties, and as a result, they give different stability indicators. A sensitivity analysis of these indicators (number of unstable blocks, average volume of unstable blocks, and total volume of unstable blocks) versus the clustering methods used, and the orientation of the slopes, is carried out. A variance analysis allows an evaluation of the influence of these factors. The assessment of the global stability condition of the rock mass, depending on the cohesion and the friction angle, is proposed. The influence of the modeling method is analyzed by comparing 3D calculations using the limit equilibrium calculations, and 2D and 3D models using discrete rigid and deformable blocks. A coupling between RESOBLOK (limit equilibrium) and LMGC90 (discrete elements) allows the comparison of results on the same original geometry. For the case of Ax-les-Thermes road-cut, and for various unstable geometries, the influence of the model parameters is tested. Several cases are compared. The 3D simulation of an excavation, at different steps, is performed, and the mobilization index is studied, in order to compare several types of contacts, within the LMGC model, in relation to the possible sliding of blocks, at those different steps
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Anh Tuan Nguyen. Influence des incertitudes géométriques et de la méthode de modélisation dans l'analyse de stabilité des talus rocheux : application aux mines à ciel ouvert. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0296⟩. ⟨tel-01754590⟩

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