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Étude et optimisation de procédés d’encapsulation de cellules photovoltaïques

Abstract : Photovoltaic (PV) cells, for solar modules or panels, are protected from environmental stresses by polymeric encapsulants, which are mostly crosslinked elastomers. The optimization and the control of the encapsulation step have a twofold interest by increasing PV module lifetime and productivity, thus leading to a decrease of the cost of generated electricity. Two main directions have been investigated in this work: 1) The first one is related to the study of the crosslinking degree of the main industrial PV polyolefin encapsulant, EVA, which is a copolymer composed of ethylene and vinyl acetate, used currently in film form. Indeed, poor crosslinking level can lead to its creep, impacting directly the module lifetime. To overcome this problem, the quality control needs to be improved, by the evaluation of the crosslinking degree obtained while using the conventional encapsulation process (through lamination of encapsulant foils). Thus, the comparison of several methods to evaluate this degree are led ;2) The second direction concerns the study of a new encapsulation process. Indeed, the conventional lamination process potentially creates mechanical stresses in the PV cells, which as a consequence may limit the PV module lifetime. Moreover, lamination requires a relatively long processing time. To overcome this problem, the development of a new encapsulation process using a photopolymerizable encapsulant, initially liquid, decreases the production costs of PV modules and potentially increases their lifetime. The rheology properties and the polymerization kinetics of the new encapsulant are studied. At the end of the present work, both encapsulation processes are compared. Electrical performances of PV cells are measured before and after encapsulation as well as before and after ageing cycles. It has been revealed that the new encapsulation process presents at least as good, if not better performances than the standard process, thus highlighting its big potential for the manufacturing of PV modules
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Submitted on : Monday, November 25, 2019 - 2:07:58 PM
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Stéphane Ogier. Étude et optimisation de procédés d’encapsulation de cellules photovoltaïques. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0396⟩. ⟨tel-01917458⟩



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