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Influence de l’hydraulique sur l’efficacité des zones tampons végétalisées à réduire les teneurs en pesticides et métabolites en sortie de drains agricoles

Abstract : Pesticides amounts measured in agricultural drained water can reach 10 µg/L up to 395 µg/L. In Lorraine, Constructed Wetlands (CW) were set up between drained fields and the river to limit pesticide release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of hydraulic on the mitigation of pesticides and metabolites in both dissolved and particulate phases of drained water, by discriminating associated processes. To do so, a multi-scale approach was performed by integrating both laboratory experiments, such as batch and dynamic conditions in pilots, and a plurennial monitoring of two different ZTVA (ditch and pond). In-situ tracing experiments highlighted that the volume of CW was not homogeneous, independently of the flow rate. CW are divided in two hydraulic zones: a main channel and isolated areas. Moreover, these two zones behave differently regarding pesticides mitigation. Annual mitigation efficiency in both of the CW studied, vary between (i) -1176 % and 96 % for dissolved pesticides, (ii) -20 % and 3 % for dissolved metabolites (chloroacetanilides), and from (iii) -580 % to 79 % for particulate pesticides. Adsorption on sediments allows the mitigation of dissolved pesticides whose adsorption coefficient (Koc) varied from 364 to 1424 L/g (mitigation ranging from 7 to 65 %), and occurred mainly in isolated areas. However, this process is reversible and desorption can explain negative efficiency measured on the field. Additionally, hydrophilic pesticides (Koc between 54 and 401 L/g) and metabolites (Koc between 0 and 0.77 L/g) are few or not mitigated (mitigation ranging from -20 and 8 %). Finally, pesticides entering CW under particulate phase are mitigated through sedimentation of total suspended solids, higher in isolated areas than in main channel. This process is also reversible, leading to sediments resuspension. Otherwise, inlet flow rates vary throughout the year, which could allow a variation of pesticide mitigation. Indeed, batch and pilots studies highlighted the influence of hydrodynamic (flow rate, etc) on mitigation of dissolved pesticides. CW act as a sink (adsorption and sedimentation) and a source (desorption and resuspension) towards specific dissolved or particulate pesticides and related to hydrodynamic of CW.
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Céline Gaullier. Influence de l’hydraulique sur l’efficacité des zones tampons végétalisées à réduire les teneurs en pesticides et métabolites en sortie de drains agricoles. Sciences de l'environnement. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0318⟩. ⟨tel-02130078⟩



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